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Kingdoms and Crusades/Scholasticism
Terms in this set (45)
What was Angleland?
Another name for England
What 3 groups came from Denmark and settled in Angleland?
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
Who was Alfred the Great?
The King of Wessex
Why was Alfred the Great significant?
He stopped the Viking attack in England
Who was King Edward the Confessor?
A king who died without an heir
What did King Edward's death cause?
It caused people to fight over who should be king.
Who was Harold Godwinson?
An Anglo-Saxon noble and son of one of Edwards's advisors
Who was Harald Hardrada?
Viking king of Norway
Who was William, Duke of Normandy?
Duke of the Normans, Vikings who had settled in Northern France and spoke French
Why was William the Conquerer significant?
William took the land of the Anglo-Saxons and gave it to his Norman supporters. He also started to do a census to tax his people.
How did people repspond to William becoming king?
The people resisted his rule
Why did the people respond this way to William becoming king?
The people wanted the king to be Anglo-Saxon
How did English develop?
The Normans brought their language, culture, and customs with them. Norman French combined with Anglo-Saxon to create English.
Who was King Henry II?
He set up a system of common law and traveling judges to hear and decided legal cases.
What was common law?
Laws that were common around a country/empire
Who were King Henry II sons?
Richard and John
Who was King Richard I?
A famous warrior and spent most of his time as king fighting in Europe. He was killed fighting in France.
Who was King John?
A terrible king who increased taxes and punished his enemies without trial.
Why was King John so disliked?
He increased taxes and punished his enemies without trial.
What was the Magna Carta?
A document to place limits on the king's power
Who signed the Magna Carta?
What did the Magna Carta state?
It limited the power of the king and required him to respect the rights of the nobility and freemen.
What was Parliament?
The law making group of England
Who was Phillip II of France?
A French king who attempted to increase the power of the king
Who was Phillip the IV?
Grandson of Phillip II
What was the Estates General?
A group of advisors in France
Understand the power of the King and Parliament/Estates general in England and France
Yes: Great job! You know it!
No: Keep studying! You can do it!
What were the crusades?
A group of 3 holy wars started by the pope agreeing to help the Byzantine Empire fight the Turks.
What were the causes of the crusades?
Many people wanted to recapture the holy city or Jerusalem.
Why did the 1st crusade start?
When Pope Urban II agreed to help the Byzantine Empire fight the Turks.
Who won the 1st crusade?
The European armies
What were the Crusader States?
Four kingdoms set up by European armies after they captured most of Israel.
Who was Saladin?
Man who defeated the Christians in the 2nd crusade
What happened during the 2nd crusade?
Muslims captured Jerusalum
What was the 3rd crusade also called?
The King's Crusade
Who led the 3rd crusade?
-Richard the Lionheart
What happened during the 3rd crusade?
Richard won against Saladin but the crusade is a failure
What were the effects of the crusades?
-Western Europeans gained new knowledge
-They learned how to build domes ad create mosaics
-Learned how to build better ships and make more accurate maps
-Learned how to use a compass
What was scholasticism?
A way of thinking that combines faith and reason
Why was scholasticism created?
Followers wanted to show that ideas accepted on faith did not have to contradict ideas developed by reason
Who was Aristotle?
Greek philosopher in the 300s BCE, student of Socrates, teacher of Alexander the Great, wrote about - Science, Math, Weather, Philosophy, known for the use of logic, he also write most important writing brought back after crusades, conflicted with church teachings
Who was Thomas Aquinas?
Scholasticism's greatest thinker. His goal was to find agreement between Aristotle teachings and Christian teachings. He taught that truth arrived at through reason could not conflict with truths arrived at through faith.
What were Thomas Aquinas ideas on government?
He thought that the government should be based on natural law. That everyone should have the same basic rights.
What was natural law?
Basic human rights, naturally given to all
Make sure you know the t-chart on Medieval France vs. Medieval England
Yes - GREAT JOB!
No - The t-chart is on Mr. Conrad's Google Classroom
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