Drivers Ed: module 7

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The driver of the green car, while driving in the left lane of a two-lane road, sees a vehicle stopped on the right shoulder, partially blocking the far right lane. The blue car is attempting to pass the green car. What should the driver of the green car do to clear the scene safely?
Slow down and stay alert to the surroundings.
defensive driving
What is defensive driving? It's a set of driving skills that allows you to defend yourself against possible collisions due to other drivers, weather, or road conditions.
Look ahead and keep your eyes moving—it will be easier to spot potential hazards. Once you identify a potential hazard and decided what to do, act immediately. Don't "wait and see."

Defensive drivers avoid dangers on the road by using safe driving practices.
Tips for defensive driving:

Plan for the unexpected
Control your speed
Be prepared to react to other drivers
Don't expect that everyone is a defensive driver
Manage time and space
Be aware of special road and weather conditions
Be alert and avoid distractions (e.g., cell phone use, eating)
IPDE
IPDE is a step-by-step reasoning process for safe vehicle operation which uses the principles of defensive driving and careful visual perception in traffic.
IPDE is an organized process of thinking and acting that you should always use when driving.

The four steps of the IPDE process are:

I (Identify)—Locate potential hazards in the driving environment.
P (Predict)—Anticipate when and where possible hazards may occur.
D (Decide)—Determine what action to take, and when and where to take it.
E (Execute)—Act by maneuvering the car to avoid hazards.
skids
An automobile skids when its tires lose their grip on the road surface. You can avoid a skid altogether if you simply slow down when road and weather conditions are poor. And don't forget to check your tires before you drive—worn tires are dangerous.
To help avoid skidding on slippery surfaces, you should::

Drive slowly and stay farther behind the vehicle ahead.

Slow down as you approach curves and intersections.

Avoid fast turns.

Avoid quick stops. "Pump" the brakes to slow or stop. (Antilock brakes should not be pumped.)

Shift to low gear before going down a steep hill.

In case your vehicle begins to skid, do the following:

Avoid using the brakes if possible.
If you are in danger of hitting something, pump the brakes gently.
Steer the vehicle into the direction of the skid. This will help straighten the vehicle and help you gain control.
Steer the vehicle back towards the direction you intend to move in.
void a collision or reduce its severity.
When it looks like a collision may happen, many drivers panic and fail to act. In some cases they do act, but not in ways that help avoid the collision. There is almost always something you can do to avoid a collision or reduce its severity. In attempting to avoid a collision, drivers have three options:
1. Stop
2. Turn (or steer away)
3. Speed up
STOPPING QUICKLY
STOPPING QUICKLY

In order to stop, you have to use your brakes effectively.
Most new vehicles have ABS (Antilock Braking Systems). Be sure to read the vehicle owner's manual on how to use the ABS. The ABS system will allow you to stop without skidding.
TURNING QUICKLY
TURNING QUICKLY

In most cases, you can turn the vehicle faster than you can stop it. When you don't have enough room to stop, you may have to steer away from what's ahead.
How to turn quickly and safely:


Do not apply the brake while you are turning. It's very easy to lock your wheels while turning. If that happens, you may skid out of control.

Do not turn any more than needed to clear whatever is in your way. The sharper the turn, the greater the chances of a skid or rollover.

Be prepared to "counter-steer," that is, to turn the wheel back in the other direction, once you've passed the obstacle.
SPEED UP
SPEED UP

Sometimes it is necessary to speed up to avoid a collision. This may happen when another vehicle is about to hit you from the side or behind and you have room at the front of your vehicle to get out of danger. Be sure to slow down once the danger has passed. Remember to always keep at least a two-second (or greater) space cushion between your vehicle and the vehicle ahead.
If you are in danger of a potential head-on collision:
If you are in danger of a potential head-on collision:
1. Reduce your speed and flash your headlights in an effort to warn the other driver. Using your horn may also be effective.
2. Head for the shoulder of the road, even if you must hit a fence or drive through bushes.
3. If you cannot avoid the collision, try to maneuver your vehicle in such a way as to lessen the severity of impact. Always wear your seat belts. This is the best thing you can do to protect yourself from injury in the event of a collision.
If you are stopped at a traffic light or stop sign and another vehicle is approaching you from behind at a high rate of speed, do the following:
If you are stopped at a traffic light or stop sign and another vehicle is approaching you from behind at a high rate of speed, do the following:
1. If possible, pull your vehicle forward in an effort to give the approaching vehicle more room to stop.
2. If the collision cannot be avoided, brace yourself between the steering wheel and the back of the seat and release your brake an instant before impact. This will help to lessen the impact.
Stopping quickly with ABS:
Stopping quickly with ABS:

Press on the brake pedal as hard as you can and maintain the pressure.

You might feel the brake pedal pushing back when the ABS is working. DO NOT let up on the brake pedal. The ABS system will only work with the brake pedal pushed down firmly. NEVER PUMP ANTILOCK BRAKES.
STOPPING QUICKLY:
STOPPING QUICKLY:

In case you have a conventional braking system:


Apply the brakes as hard as you can without locking them. The vehicle can go into a skid if you brake too hard.

If the brakes lock-up, you will feel the vehicle start to skid. Quickly let up on the brake pedal.

As soon as the vehicle stops skidding, push down on the brake pedal again. Keep doing this until the vehicle has stopped.

In case of brake failure, pump the brake pedal quickly. After three or four pumps, you will know if the brakes are going to hold. This action may build up enough brake pressure to steer the vehicle off the highway and stop safely.
Use threshold braking for conventional brakes also known as heel-and-toe method.
Use threshold braking for conventional brakes also known as heel-and-toe method. Place the heel of your foot on the floor, so that the ball of your foot makes contact with the pedal.
This will enable you to use your toes to make fine adjustments in pedal pressure and to pivot your foot smoothly between the brake and accelerator. If lock up occurs, steering control can be gained by releasing brake pressure slightly.
All drivers are required to obey posted speed limits. However, a good driver always knows when to slow down.
All drivers are required to obey posted speed limits. However, a good driver always knows when to slow down.
1. Slow down when the road is wet (rain, snow, sleet).
2. Slow down when the road is crowded.
3. Slow down when your vision is limited. You should always be able to stop within the distance that you can see ahead of your car. In darkness or bad weather, do not drive beyond your range of vision.
A good driver always adjusts speed according to his or her own physical condition and the condition of the vehicle, ensuring complete control of the situation at all times
Here are some guidelines to help you adjust speed:
Here are some guidelines to help you adjust speed:

Go 5 to 10 mph slower on a wet road.

Cut your speed in half on packed snow.

Slow to a crawl on ice.
Choosing Correct Lane Position
Choosing Correct Lane Position

Use appropriate lane positions so you can make adjustments and create more space between your car and problem situations. Choose the lane best suited for both the legal requirements of the road and destination. Make a lane change early and be in the correct lane for your turns. Anticipate lane blockages by looking one-and-a-half blocks ahead and select the lane that allows movement with the least conflict. Last minute lane changes could result in a collision with the car ahead.
blind spots
The driver's blind spots are shown in the picture. The driver cannot see vehicles in these blind spots when looking only in the mirrors.
The driver must turn his or her head in order to see a car in one of these blind spots. Drive through another driver's blind spot as quickly as you can or drop back.
The blue car is driving behind the orange car and must maintain a safe following distance. What should the driver of the blue car do?
Maintain a two-second following distance.
Give yourself extra cushion:
Give yourself extra cushion:

When a tailgater is crowding you, allow extra room between your car and the car ahead. Then, if you need to slow down, do so gradually after checking your mirrors. You will be able to avoid braking suddenly and being hit from behind.
When your vision is blocked by poor visibility on road (e.g., fog, heavy rain).
When your vision is blocked by poor visibility on road (e.g., fog, heavy rain).

When following or driving next to vehicles that block your view ahead (e.g. trucks, SUVs, buses). You need the extra room to see around the vehicle and to the sides.
slippery roads
On slippery roads. If the car ahead slows or stops, you will need more distance to stop your car.
When it rains or snows. Stopping distances increase on snowy and wet roads.
When following motorcycles. If the motorcycle falls, you'll have to avoid hitting the rider. Motorcycles fall more often on wet or icy roads, bridge gratings, railroad tracks, and on gravel.
speed increases and the traffic flow is fast
When the speed increases and the traffic flow is fast. In such cases, you need a space of at least five seconds.
When merging on an expressway.
if you need to attend to something important while driving
If you need to attend to something important while driving, first check the situation ahead, then check traffic by taking frequently, short looks. Also check your mirrors in between movements.
When driving on hilltops and curves
When driving on hilltops and curves, check ahead for hazards or problems (e.g. a stalled car) and adjust your speed and following distance. Check ahead for speed limit signs on hilltops and curves. Slow down when driving downhill and before entering a curve.
On long, steep downgrades, keep a look out for large vehicles that can gather speed very quickly.
Any time you come to a place where people may cross or enter your path
Any time you come to a place where people may cross or enter your path, you should look to the sides to make sure no one is coming.
THIS INCLUDES:

Cross streets, side streets, and alleys
Crosswalks and railroad crossings
Expressway entrances
Driveways, shopping center entrances, etc.
FOLLOW THESE RULES AT INTERSECTIONS
-LOOK BOTH WAYS
FOLLOW THESE RULES AT INTERSECTIONS
-LOOK BOTH WAYS

You should look left, right, and left again just before entering the intersection.
Look to the left first, since cars coming from the left are closer to you.
Some drivers do not obey traffic signals.
At an intersection, look left, right, and left again even if the other traffic has a red light or a stop sign. A drunk or reckless driver may not stop.
rear-end collision
A rear-end collision happens when a vehicle is hit from the back. This type of collision usually occurs when the vehicle behind you is driving too close to your car. Avoid sudden moves and stops so that vehicles behind you have time to react. Keep pressing your brake pedal even after stopping.
If you stop or turn unexpectedly and the car following hits you, it could be your fault.

To avoid being rear-ended by another vehicle, you should:

Always signal when you change direction. Signal even when you don't see any cars around. A car you don't see might hit you.
Signal early for turns, stops or lane changes.
Always signal before pulling next to (or away from) the curb.
Even though you signal, do not assume that the space you wish to occupy is clear. Look in your mirrors and over your shoulder to check your blind spot before making a lane change.
tailgating
If someone is tailgating you (following too closely behind), "lose" the tailgater as soon as you can by changing lanes. If you cannot change lanes, slow down enough to encourage the tailgater to go around you. If this does not work, pull off the road when it is safe and let the tailgater pass.
Establishing Space Ahead and Behind:
Establishing Space Ahead and Behind:

Always have an escape route. Do this by establishing a safe space around your vehicle. This means that you should always be aware of any secondary spaces or gaps in the adjacent lanes that could be used as an escape route. The gap can be in the front, back, or side of your car. At the same time, it is important to always maintain a two-second distance between your car and the one in front. It can also be equally important for the car behind you to maintain a good following distance. A tap on the brake or slowing your speed can discourage a tailgater and reestablish a cushion of safety.
Speed Control Options:
Speed Control Options:

Speed variance is your best option in managing space. After determining road conditions, you have the following choices for controlling your speed:

Maintain your speed

Slow down your speed

Increase your speed

Apply the brake

Used effectively and timely, these choices should provide you with the correct option to maintain a safe space cushion at all times.

Travel at a speed based upon the speed limit and environmental conditions.

If you determine that a zone is closing to your front, always reduce speed.

Avoid using any unnecessary acceleration into a closed zone.

When you see a red light or stopped traffic, reduce speed until you arrive at an open zone.

When your ability to see others (who may enter your path) is reduced, lower speed.

Use speed limit signs as a cue to check the speedometer and other vehicle gauges.

Select the best lane for the legal requirements of the road and destination.

Select a lane position that provides the best separation from potential problems.
Executing the decision
Executing the decision

Once you have evaluated the situation and made a decision, executing it involves figuring out how much braking or acceleration you need, what lane position to take, and whether there is a need to communicate (signal, horn, tap on the brake, etc.) in establishing and maintaining a safe space.
Sometimes there will be dangers on both sides of the road. To avoid these multiple hazards:
Sometimes there will be dangers on both sides of the road. To avoid these multiple hazards:

Identify all potential hazards early. Rate the hazards on the level of threat to your safety.

Make predictions about what might happen or go wrong.

Make adjustments in your speed and position to make sure you are safe.

Have escape routes in mind before you are faced with a dangerous situation.
IF YOUR BRAKES SUDDENLY GIVE OUT:
IF YOUR BRAKES SUDDENLY GIVE OUT:

Pump the brake pedal for about three or four pumps. Doing this fast and hard will build up brake fluid pressure. NEVER PUMP ANTILOCK BRAKES.
Downshift into a lower gear.
Apply the parking brake slowly while holding down the release lever or button. This will prevent the car's wheels from locking and help prevent skidding.
You can also rub the tires against a curb to slow the car, or attempt to move off the road if there is an open space without obstacles.
You can still steer and swerve. Steer into bushes or something soft.
Sound your horn and flash your lights to warn other drivers.
When you no longer need to change direction, turn off the ignition.
IF YOUR TIRE SUDDENLY BLOWS OUT:
IF YOUR TIRE SUDDENLY BLOWS OUT:

Avoid using the brakes.
Focus your steering to avoid hazards.
Attempt to slow the car gradually.
Once the car is under your control, brake softly.
As you slow down, pull the car off the road.
IF THE ENGINE DIES:
IF THE ENGINE DIES:

Move to the side of the road as safely as possible. The steering wheel may take more force to turn than normal.
Stop the car. You may have to push the brake pedal hard if your car has power brakes.
Restart the engine and proceed with caution.
IF YOUR HEADLIGHTS SUDDENLY GO OUT AT NIGHT:
IF YOUR HEADLIGHTS SUDDENLY GO OUT AT NIGHT:

Try the dimmer switch. This will often put them on again.
Try the headlight switch a few times. If that doesn't work, put on the parking lights, hazard lights, or turn signals.
If none of these work, pull off the road as quickly as possible and leave the hazard lights on.
IF YOUR HOOD SUDDENLY FLIES UP:
IF YOUR HOOD SUDDENLY FLIES UP:

Slow down.
Try to look under the hood to see. If you can't, put your head out the window and use the centerline or the lane marking as a guide.
Turn on the emergency flashers and safely pull off the road as soon as possible.
IF YOUR ACCELERATOR SUDDENLY GETS STUCK:
IF YOUR ACCELERATOR SUDDENLY GETS STUCK:

Shift to neutral.
Apply the brakes.
Keep your eyes on the road.
Look for a way out.
Warn other drivers by blinking and flashing your emergency lights.
Try to drive the car safely off the road.
Turn off the ignition when you no longer need to change direction.
temperature gauge is rising
If your temperature gauge is rising and you are stopped in traffic, briefly put the car in park (P) and lightly step on the gas to help circulate coolant.
If the temperature light goes on or if the gauge enters the red zone, immediately pull off the road, well away from traffic, and stop the engine.
Wait 20 minutes, start up the engine, and if the temperature light does not come on, proceed directly to the nearest garage. If at any time the gauge goes back into the red zone or the temperature light comes on, pull over immediately, turn off the engine, and repeat the process.
If you are involved in any sort of collision
If you are involved in any sort of collision, it is essential for you to stop.
If anyone is injured, call 911 immediately.
Exchange information with anyone else involved in a collision. You are required to give your name, address, and vehicle registration number. You must also show your drivers license.
Do not block traffic. Move your car out of the way and make sure it doesn't pose a threat to anyone else on the road. Call a tow truck if you are not able to move the vehicle yourself.
If you hit an unattended vehicle or object and cause damage, you must attempt to find the owner. If you can't locate the owner, leave a note with your name, address, and plate number. You are also required to report the incident to your local law enforcement office.
REPORTING COLLISIONS:
REPORTING COLLISIONS:

If the accident results in property damage, injury, or death, you are required to report it. Make sure to call your local law enforcement agency, Florida Highway Patrol, or county sheriff's office. If a DUI charge is involved or damage is so extensive that the wreckage must be towed, a law officer will fill out the report. If the incident is to be investigated, you are not required to file a report yourself. If property damage is over $500 and a report is not made by law enforcement, you will be required to file with the Department of Highway Safety Motor Vehicles within 10 days.
Make sure to maintain a copy of any report for your records.
In Florida, there are two insurance laws:
In Florida, there are two insurance laws:
1. The Financial Responsibility Law
2. The No-Fault Law
Every driver who purchases insurance in Florida is issued an insurance ID card. You must have this card with you every time you drive in Florida.
Forging or making a false statement about car insurance is a second degree misdemeanor.
FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY LAW:
FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY LAW:

According to the Financial Responsibility Law, the state of Florida requires owners and operators of motor vehicles to submit proof of financial responsibility in the event of a collision. A driver must have liability insurance (sometimes called mandatory insurance) on any vehicle that he/she owns or drives. Motorcycles must also be insured. By law, insurance coverage must provide the following minimum coverage:

$10,000 Bodily Injury Liability to one person
$20,000 Bodily Injury Liability to two or more persons
$10,000 Property Damage Liability
$30,000 combined single limits
According to the Florida Driver Handbook, the Financial Responsibility Law requires drivers and owners of the vehicle to have bodily injury liability insurance at the time of the following cases:
According to the Florida Driver Handbook, the Financial Responsibility Law requires drivers and owners of the vehicle to have bodily injury liability insurance at the time of the following cases:

A collision where you are at fault and somebody is injured.
A license suspension for too many points on your driving record.
A citation for driving under the influence, resulting in drivers license revocation.
A revocation for habitual traffic offenses.
A revocation for any serious offense as defined by DHSMV.
NO-FAULT LAW:
NO-FAULT LAW:

You will not be able to purchase a license plate or register a vehicle without the appropriate insurance coverage. According to the No-Fault law, an owner of any vehicle with more than four wheels that has been in Florida for at least 90 days during the past year must buy an insurance policy for the state of Florida. The policy must have a minimum coverage amount of $10,000 for personal injury protection and $10,000 for property damage liability. The exceptions to this rule are owners of taxis and limousines.
There are four ways to obtain the proper coverage:
There are four ways to obtain the proper coverage:
1) Buy your insurance policy from a company licensed to do business within the state.
2) Receive your Financial Responsibility Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility. You can do this by posting a satisfactory surety bond from a company licensed to do business in the state.
3) Receive a Financial Responsibility Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility after depositing the required amount of cash or securities.
4) Receive a Self Insurance Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility after showing proof of a net unencumbered capital.