31 terms

APUSH Unit 7 Terms

AP US History terms for Unit 7: Manifest Destiny and Heading Toward the Civil War

Terms in this set (...)

Manifest Destiny
The idea that it was AMERICA'S DUTY TO EXTEND LIBERTY AND DEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS ACROSS THE CONTINENT. It was stimulated by nationalism and an idealistic vision of human perfectibility. Anglo-Saxon Americans believed that they had a natural right to move west, bringing with them the blessings of self-government and Protestantism so west they went in the 1830s and 1840s.
John L. O'Sullivan
This man GAVE MANIFEST DESTINY ITS NAME in 1845 when he wrote that it is "the fulfillment of our MANIFEST DESTINY to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions." He was the editor of the influential United States Magazine and Democratic Review.
Transcontinental Treaty 1819
Spain ceded Florida to the US with this treaty. The United States also relinquished any nebulous claims to Texas under the Louisiana Purchase.
Oregon Trail
Americans took this route west from Missouri to the Pacific Northwest c. 1837. Motivated by the spirit of Manifest Destiny.
These Americans, upon encouragement and land incentives from the Mexican government, immigrated to Texas. By the mid-1830s, there were about 30,000 Americans ranching and growing cotton with the aid of several thousand black slaves. The Americans in Texas soon greatly outnumbered the native Mexicans, and they sought full statehood for the province in order to gain home rule.
Sam Houston
This man was Commander-in-Chief of the Texan army and elected president when Texas declared its independence from Mexico. After the battle at the Alamo, he surprised the Mexicans with fewer than 900 men (about half the size of Santa Anna's force) near the site of the city that bears his name. The Texans won, captured Santa Anna, and forced him to sign a treaty recognizing Texas as an independent republic, with the Rio Grande River as its southwestern boundary.
At this abandoned monastery near San Antonio, TX, Mexican president Santa Anna and his army of 6,000 troops assaulted 200 rebel Texans in 1836, killing them all. Hundreds of southwestern adventurers responded to the romanticized heroism of the Alamo and promises of bounty lands. The rebel Texans soon immortalized this last stand with the battle cry, "Remember the [term here]!"
John Slidell
President Polk appointed this man as minister to Mexico, and instructed him to offer up to 30 million dollars to settle the disputed claims and purchase California and New Mexico—the territory between Texas and California. After MEXICO REJECTED THIS MAN AS AMERICAN MINISTER, the president informed his cabinet in 1846 that the U.S. "HAD AMPLE CAUSE OF WAR," based upon the rejection of this man as minister and the claims issue.
Zachary Taylor
After Texas joined the Union in late 1845, President Polk ordered this GENERAL and about half of the United States army (some 3,500 men) to take up a defensive position on the Nueces River in early 1846. During the MEXICAN WAR, he met with great military success, earning the nickname "OLD ROUGH AND READY." After leading his troops to a stunning victory once again in the Battle of Buena Vista in 1847, he returned home a military hero DESTINED FOR THE WHITE HOUSE.
Mr. Polk's War
The northeast US derided the Mexican War with this name.
Winfield Scott
Another American GENERAL who led his men to great victories in the MEXICAN WAR, including the decisive campaign against Mexico City.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
The PEACE TREATY that ENDED the MEXICAN WAR was signed on February 2, 1848. Mexico acknowledged the annexation of Texas (with the Rio Grande as its border), and ceded New Mexico, Nevada, and California to the United States.
Mexican Cession
After the Mexican War, the U.S. BOUGHT CALIFORNIA AND NEW MEXICO (the territory between Texas and California) FROM MEXICO for $15 million. THIS AREA became a political battleground between the North and the South because they disagreed over whether slavery should be allowed in the new territory.
Wilmot Proviso
Employing the language of the Northwest Ordinance, David Wilmot, a Democratic congressman from Pennsylvania, proposed that SLAVERY BE PROHIBITED IN ANY TERRITORY ACQUIRED FROM MEXICO. The bill passed the House frequently in the next several years, but it was always defeated in the Senate. It NEVER BECAME LAW, but represented the extreme Northern position regarding the extension of slavery.
Popular Sovereignty
One compromise proposal to settle the dispute over the expansion of slavery was introduced in December 1847 by Lewis Cass, a moderate Democratic senator from Michigan. Cass adroitly proposed that the explosive slavery question be removed from the halls of Congress by LETTING THE PEOPLE OF THE TERRITORIES DECIDE WHETHER TO ALLOW SLAVERY.
These people sought their fortune in the Gold Rush in Northern California.
Gabriel Prosser
In 1800, this Negro ORGANIZED the FIRST ARMED SLAVE REBELLION, which involved about 50 slaves living near RICHMOND, VIRGINIA. Hundreds of slaves learned about the planned uprising, and two of them informed the white authorities. Governor James Monroe called out the militia and Prosser and 25 of his followers were executed, although their owners received compensation.
Denmark Vesey
This Negro tried ANOTHER ARMED SLAVE REBELLION. A literate carpenter who purchased his freedom from lottery winnings, he spent five years devising an elaborate scheme to seize control of CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA. Slaves also betrayed him, and he hanged along with 35 fellow conspirators in the summer of 1822.
Nat Turner
This literate slave STARTED the ONLY SIGNIFICANT SLAVE INSURRECTION DURING THE ANTEBELLUM PERIOD. In 1831, he led about 30 slaves on a murderous rampage through tidewater VIRGINIA, killing close to 60 men, women, and children, but after two months and many more people bit the dust, Turner was captured, tried, and executed. In response to the revolt, southern states strictly enforced laws prohibiting the education of slaves, occasionally incarcerated Northern black sailors while their ships were anchored in southern ports, and sent out mounted "slave patrols" throughout the countryside to prevent blacks from meeting without whites present and to catch runaway slaves.
Underground Railroad
This famous (and perhaps overrated) group of abolitionists helped some slaves escape bondage and reach Canada.
Personal liberty laws
In 1842, several northern states passed these laws designed to protect the rights of alleged fugitive slaves by prohibiting state officials from assisting in their capture. Southerners complained that these laws made it impossible to return their escaped property, and demanded a more stringent fugitive slave act.
Compromise of 1850
By late September, the legislation collectively known as the Compromise of 1850 was signed into law by President Fillmore. California was admitted as a free state, Utah and New Mexico were created as territories, Texas was compensated with ten million dollars for accepting its present-day borders, the slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia, and a more stringent fugitive slave law was enacted.
Fugitive Slave Act 1850
This law made it harder for fugitive slaves and free Negroes to remain free. Alleged runaways were not permitted a jury trial or allowed to testify at their hearing, and the commissioners who decided the cases were paid $10 if they returned accused fugitives to slavery but only $5 if they released them. In addition, "all good citizens" were "commanded to aid and assist in the prompt execution of this law." Anyone obstructing the return of a fugitive slave or participating in a rescue was liable to a maximum fine of $1,000 and a six-month term of imprisonment.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
The most significant response to the Fugitive Slave Act came from the pen of NOVELIST HARRIET BEECHER STOWE. More than anything else, Stowe's novel released pent-up feelings of guilt and revulsion toward slavery among Northerners who previously had not given much thought to the sectional controversy. What was once primarily a POLITICAL or CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUE became a MORAL ISSUE.
Aunt Phyllis's Cabin
Southern writers attempted futilely in the ensuing "cabin wars" to portray slavery as a benign institution. This book described Christian masters who neither whipped their slaves nor broke up families.
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854
In 1854, Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which split the territory into two sections, slave state Kansas and free state Nebraska. He believed in popular sovereignty and pushed to let the residents of each territory decide whether their state would permit slavery. Douglas called for the repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 that prohibited slavery north of the 36° 30' line because both Nebraska and Kansas were located north of the line.
Beecher's Bibles
One organization, the New England Emigrant Aid Company, sent thousands of people to Kansas. The company armed the pioneers with rifles nicknamed "Beecher's Bibles," after the Reverend Henry Ward Beecher who raised money to purchase the weapons.
Bleeding Kansas
In 1856, the crisis reached its boiling point when a mob of proslavery-ites raided the free-soil town of Lawrence. They looted stores, burned buildings, and destroyed the town's printing press. The violent attack was just the first of many to come and prompted journalists to call the escalating conflict "Bleeding Kansas."
Dred Scott case 1857
Dred Scott, a Missouri slave who frequently traveled with his owner through Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, sued his owner's widow for his freedom in 1846, claiming that his residence in free state Illinois, and in the Wisconsin Territory, where the Missouri Compromise outlawed slavery, made him a free man. The Supreme Court—with five of its nine members from slave states—dismissed the case and ruled that black people were not citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue for their liberty. Taney also announced that even if Scott had been considered a citizen, his residence in the Wisconsin Territory did not qualify him to be free, effectively declaring that since slave owners could take their "property" anywhere, Congress could not ban slavery from the territories.
Freeport Doctrine
In one of the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas stated that in order for slavery to exist, laws were necessary to protect it. If no such laws were established, slave-owners would not reside there and the territory would be free. Douglas effectively answered the question without offending pro or antislavery supporters, and his famous response became known as the Freeport Doctrine.
John Brown
After participating in the bloodshed in Kansas, this fiery abolitionist and his followers attempted to start a slave rebellion in Virginia. Although he captured the arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA, his rebellion failed and he was captured, tried, and executed.