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AP Psychology

Frances Galton

Maintained that personality and ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance (Human traits are inherited).

Charles Darwin

Theory of evolution, survival of the fittest-- Origin of the Species

William Wundt

introspection-- psychology became the scientific study of conscious experience (rather than science).

John Watson

Founder of behavior- did the study of generalization

Little Albert

Watson's study on the generalization of fear. Conditioning subject to be afraid

Alfred Adler

Neo Freudian, believed that childhood social not sexual tensions are crucial for personality formation

Carl Jung

People had conscious and unconscious awareness- two layers of unconscious archetypes- personal/colective

Gordon Allport

Three levels of traits: 1. Cardinal trait-it is the dominant trait that characterizes your life; 2. Central trait-one common to all people; 3. Secondary trait-it surfaces in some situations and not others

Albert Ellis

Rational Emotive Therapy-focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions

Albert Maslow

Hierarchy of needs- Needs at the lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied. Once these needs are adequately met, the higher needs occupy the individual's attention

Carl Rogers

Humanistic psychology- the theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth

B. F. Skinner

Operant conditioning- techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior. Also Skinner Box.

Ivan Pavlov

Classical conditioning- An unconditional stimulus naturally elicits a reflexive behavior called an unconditional response. But with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response. Dog Salivation, etc.

Noam Chomsky

Disagreed with Skinner and said there are an infinite number of sentences in a language, said that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language

Jean Piaget

Four-stage theory of cognitive development: 1.) Sensorimotor, 2.) preoperational, 3.) concrete operational, 4.) formal operational. He said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth- assimilation & accommodation

Erik Erikson

People evolve through 8 stages over the life span. Each stage marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I"

Lawrence Kohlberg

His theory states that there are 3 levels of moral reasoning and each level can be divided into 2 stages. 1.) Pre-conventional, 2.) conventional, 3.) post-conventional. His theory focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior.

Carol Gilligan

She maintained that Kohlberg's work was developed only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of men and women.

James Lange Theory

It asserts that the perception of emotion is our awareness of our physiological response to emotion arousing stimuli. e.g. sign of coming car-> pounding heart-fear

Cannon-Bard Theory

An emotion-arousing stimulus triggers cognitive body responses simultaneously. e.g. arousal and emotion are simultaneous.

Phineas Gage

First person to have a frontal lobotomy. Gave psychology information on part of the brain that is involved with emotions reasoning, etc.

Hans Eysenck

Personality is determined to a large extent by genes. He used the terms extroversion/introversion.

S. Schacter

To experience emotions: 1.) must be physically aroused, 2.) must cognitively label arousal (know the emotion before you experience it)

Mary Cover Jones

Systemic desensitization

Benjamin Whorf

His hypothesis is that language determines the way we think.

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