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74 terms

Skin and Body Membranes

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epithelium tissue
(Covering) - Protects, covers, and lines body cavities.
connective tissue
(Support) - Protects, binds, and supports. Cells in a matrix.
Nervous tissue
(Control) - Communication, nervous, and neuroglia.
Muscle tissue
(movement) - Generates movement and heat.
Neuroglia
cells that support and nourish neurons
endocrine gland
gland that releases its secretions directly into the bloodstream
exocrine gland
gland that releases its secretions through tubelike structures called ducts
fibroblasts
cells that make fibers.
collagen fibers
Tough; Like a rope.
elastic fibers
Flexible; Like a rubber band.
simple squamous epithelium
One cell layer thick of flattened cells
stratified squamous epithelium
More than one cell layer thick
simple cuboidal epithelium
One cell layer thick
simple columnar epithelium
one cell layer thick
transitional epithelium
changes shape
areolar connective tissue
has fiberblasts, collagen, and elastic fibers
dense regular connective tissue
Collagen fibers that run in the same direction (makes tendons and ligaments)
dense irregular connect tissue
fibers running in different directions
adipose tissue
fat
hyaline cartilage
chandracyte in lacunae; ground substance in matrix.
fibrocartilage
has hyaline cartilage; found between vertabrae; made with collagen fibers.
elastic cartilage
Similar to hyaline cartilage but contains elastic fibers. Found in the external ear.
bone (osseous)
osteocytes in the lacuna; collagen and calcium salts.
blood
connective tissue; red blood cells, white blood cells, and liquid matrix (plasma)
skeletal muscles
Have striations; voluntary movements; and found in muscles
smooth muscles
no striations; involuntary; no intercalated discs; and found in internal organs
cardiac muscles
have striations; involuntary; and intercalated discs
neuron
cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system
neuroglia
cells that support and nourish neurons
serous membrane
closed cavity; made of connective tissue and epithelium
synovial membrane
joints; made of only connective tissue
cutaneous membrane
skin; made of connective tissue and epithelium
mucous membrane
open cavities outside the body; made of connective tissue and epithelium
visceral
instinctive; relating to the internal organs
parietal
pertaining to the walls of a cavity
peritoneum
(digestive organs) Parietal peritoneum lines cavities; visceral peritoneum lines surface of digestive organs
pleura
(Lungs) Parietal pleura lines cavities; visceral pleura on surface of lungs
pericardium
(heart) parietal pericardium lines cavities; visceral pericardium lines surface of heart
epidermis
Top, outer layer of skin; avascular ( no blood vessels)
dermis
Middle layer of skin
hypodermis
(subcutaneous layer) Layer of loose connective tissue below the dermis that binds the dermis to the body.
five layers of thick skin (from the inside out)
stratum corneum, stratum lucidium, stratum granulosm, stratum spinosum, and stratum basale
distinguish between the papillary and reticular layers
papillary is 20% and superficial; reticular is 80% and deep
melanin
skin color; tanning
keratin
water proof
dermal papillae
(fingerprints); peg-like projections on the superior surface that indent the overlying epidermis
Meissner's corpuscles
superficial; sense motion of objects that lightly touch the skin
arrector pili
smooth muscle that surrounds each hair follicle; contraction may cause goose bumps
sebum
oily secretions from sebacceous glands
pacinian corpuscles
receptors in skin that respond to pressure and vibrations; deep reticular layer
lunula
white crescent on fingernail (half moon)
sebaceous glands
secrete sebum (oil) into the hair follicles where the hair shafts pass through the dermis
lanugo hair
fine hair covering entire fetus before birth
ceruminous glands
secrete earwax
cerumen
a soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal
eccrine glands
found all over body; produces sweat
apocrine sudoriferous glands
milky secretion; odorless and found in groin and armpit
1st degree burn
only epidermis damaged, red and swollen, and no blisters
2nd degree burns
involves epidermis and dermis; blisters
3rd degree burns
involves epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis; Full thickness burn; burned area appears blackened
rule of nines
divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9 % of the total body surface area , plus an additional area surrounding the genitals representing 1% equaling 100%
basal cell carcinoma
(least malignant) Most common and least severe type of skin cancer; often characterized by light or pearly nodules.
squamous cell carcinoma
Type of skin cancer more serious than basal cell carcinoma; treatable if caught early
malignant melanoma
(dark color) very malignant. Use ABCD rule
ABCD Rule
A= asymmetry ( not equal); B=border irregularity (not smooth); C=color (different colors, but dark); Diameter= (bad if pencil size or larger)
regeneration
repair; ; heals well, no scar.
fibrosis
formation of scar tissue
prophase
chromosomes become visible, spindle fibers form, and nuclear envelope breaks up
steps of mitosis (PMAT)
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
metaphase
chromosomes line up at the center of the cell and spindle fibers pull them
anaphase
chromatids seperate and move to the poles and spindle fibers pull them
telophase
chromosomes dissappear and nuclear envelope forms daughter cells
tissues
cells organized for a particular function
granulation tissue
Delicate pink tissue that forms during healing of a wound