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BSI 2 LEC 12
Terms in this set (37)
T or F? Most RBC's have very strong antigens on them.
False, they are weakly antigenic and have little medical significance.
What are the 2 groups of antigens on RBC's that are the most significant?
O-A-B and Rh groups
Which blood type has no antigens?
Which blood type is considered the universal donors? Universal recipients?
Universal donors - Type O
Universal recipients - Type AB
T or F? If you have type A blood, you have A-antibodies in your blood.
False, blood type/group A, (A antigen expressed on RBC's), and therefore have "anti B" antibodies in their blood
Which blood type is the rarest?
T or F? The body constantly produces RBC's antibodies throughout life.
False, Immediately after birth the levels of these antibodies ~ 0; infants begin producing the appropriate antibody/s ~ 2-8 months after birth and this reaches a maximum after ~ 8-10 years, (gradually ↓ throughout life)
What are the types of antibodies that go after the RBCs' antigens?
These antibodies are mostly IgG and IgM immunoglobulins.
IgG and IgM antibodies production is stimulated by external sources such as certain _______ and _______: lymphocyte "processing" eliminates any response to the individual's own antigen/s.
bacteria ; food
T or F? Agglutination can occur in individuals with type AB blood if they are receiving blood.
False. They have A and B antigens so their bodies do not make any "A or B" antibodies, so they can receive any blood type without agglutination.
What is hemolysis?
The rupture or destruction of blood.
T or F? The specific antibodies to rhesus antigens are not normally produced until exposure to the antigens from an exogenous source.
True. To produce a significant response the immune system needs repeated exposure, (like multiple inoculations).
What are the 6 common types of Rhesus antigens?
"C," "D," "E," "c," "d" and "e."
T or F? For the Rhesus antigens, you can have C-antigens and c-antigens.
False, you cannot have "C" and "c" at the same time. This also applies to Dd and Ee pairings.
The ____ Rh antigen is widely expressed in the population and is considered the most antigenic.
D; Rh grouping therefore primarily depends on whether a person expresses D, (Rh+: > 85% population), or not, (Rh-).
Is it possible to give Rh(+) blood to Rh(-) patients without killing the patient?
Yes. If no previous exposure then there is little likelihood of any immediately significant reaction: however antibodies to the antigen/s will be produced over the next few weeks, and will cause agglutination of any remaining transfused Rh+ RBC's. This may, therefore, cause a delayed transfusion reaction but this is usually mild: repeated exposures will increase the severity of the response until it can be as life-threatening as that of the O-A-B system.
____ ______ was a cause of anemia: this condition in the newborn is caused by a Rh- mother producing a Rh+ baby.
Erythroblastosis fetalis , (inherited from father)
T or F? The odds of Erythroblastosis fetalis decreases if the mother has more babies down the road.
False, increases not decrease
What is Kernicterus?
Neurons in the brain motor areas appear to accumulate precipitated bilirubin intracellularly causing their destruction. Condition can be fatal, many surviving children can have permanent brain damage.
What causes a newborn's skin to appear yellow or "jaundiced" and the become anemic at birth?
Erythroblastosis fetalis causes hemolyzed RBC's result in more Hb recycling and therefore increases bilirubin production.
What conditions can erythroblastosis fetalis cause?
Enlarge liver and spleen
Increase in immature RBCs
What is the most lethal component of transfusion reactions?
kidney failure; this can occur within minutes of a transfusion if a severe enough reaction occurs.
kidney failure after a transfusion is probably due to?
1. Hemolyzed RBC's release toxic substances that produce strong vasoconstriction so ↓kidney function.
2.Circulatory shock can develop during which there is a further ↓blood pressure and therefore further ↓kidney function.
3. The excessively increased amounts of released Hb from hemolyzed RBC's leaks into the kidney tubules via the glomerular membranes and precipitates as water is reabsorbed therefore blocking them and effectively stopping kidney function.
A transplant of tissue or organs within the same person/animal is called a(n) "______" and between identical twins is called a(n) "_______". These rarely cause any significant immune reactions.
A transplant of tissue or organs between individuals of the same species is called a(n) "_____" while if between different species it is called a(n) "________".
allograft; xenograft (xenografts almost always produce a reaction resulting in death of the transplanted tissue or cells in ~ 1day to 5 weeks unless significant supporting therapy is provided)
T or F? Allografts, which are the most common type of transplant, are, therefore "tissue matched," to minimize any possible reaction and subsequent rejection.
Which immune response must be suppressed to prevent rejection of transplant?
What is commonly used to suppress the growth of lymphocyte tissues?
Cortisol/glucocorticoids (This decreases production of all lymphocytes but also increases rate of infection and cancer.)
It is impossible to synthesize drugs that interact with peptide receptors, (nature providing the exception with morphine), what can we do as a treatment?
Antibodies can be generated to interact very specifically with peptides and their receptors.
How are are monoclonal antibodies produced?
From a single Plasma cell, (produced by inoculating animals), are fused with myeloma cells, (B-lymphocyte tumors), to form hybridomas that act as "antibody factories" from which the antibodies can be harvested.
T or F? Antibodies can also be made that neutralize the various cytokines so allowing, where possible/known, specific targeting of immune system function.
_________ are important in many functions including regulating lymphocyte movement throughout the body: its effects can be blocked by using antibodies to its GPR receptors.
sphingosine-1-phosphate, (sphingolipids in general),
T or F? Some antibodies can actually activate their target receptor.
True. As happens with the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone receptor on the thyroid gland: antibodies to this GPR receptor can actually cause Graves disease which is due to oversecretion/hypersecretion of thyroid hormones.
with respect to _______ disease, the immune system ages and appears to become less effective in countering exogenous/pathogenic factors while increasing "self-recognition."
The change in ______ levels can cause chronic, low level inflammatory environment which can facilitate the development of certain diseases which would not have occurred with a "young" immune system.
What is lipodromics?
Study of pathways and networks of cellular lipids in the biological system, such as sphingolipids.
Understand how to read the blood test card.