APWH 23: Transformation of Europe

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Johannes Gutenberg
Inventor of the movable-type printing press circa 1450.
literacy
The ability to read and write.
Protestant Reformation
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Martin Luther
One of the first Reformation leaders. Most famous for criticisms of Catholicism called the Ninety-Five Theses (1517).
John Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism
Henry VIII
English monarch who began the Church of England (Anglicanism) to divorce his wife.
Puritans
Mostly Calvinist group who wanted to eliminate all vestiges of Catholicism from the Church of England.
Catholic Reformation
Reforms within the Catholic church, including forbidding the sale of indulgences, reinforcing salvation by faith AND works, and establishment of missionary orders such as the Jesuits.
Charles V
Powerful monarch of Reformation-era Europe, most noted for his battles against the Ottoman empire and his attempts to prevent the Reformation from taking hold in the Holy Roman Empire.
Inquisition
The search for those with beliefs against the Catholic church. Was most extreme in Spain.
Thirty Years' War
European conflict that began over religion in Bohemia and expanded to include most European nations. Ended with the Peace of Westphalia.
William Shakespeare
A prime example of the proliferation of popular authors after the printing press increased literacy. The quintessential playwright of Elizabethan English.
constitutional governments
Having a government that is constrained by a document, generally drafted to protect people's rights.
Absolutism
The idea that a monarch has complete power - they answer only to God and are therefore beyond question. The monarch is not constrained by the rule of law or by his/her people (including nobles).
Louis XIV
The quintessential absolute monarch. Ruled France, established Versailles, and expanded his borders.
Balance of Power
The idea that no nation ought to have any more power than any other. To that end, other nations will band together to prevent any one nation from growing too powerful.
capitalism
Economic system in which private parties make their goods and services available on a free market and seek to take advantage of market conditions to profit from their activities.
putting-out system
Also known as "cottage industry." When capitalists sent materials into rural areas for processing and assembly.
Adam Smith
Wrote Wealth of Nations. Posited that a nation's wealth was in its labor. Suggested that supply and demand can be explained via the "invisible hand."
scientific revolution
The era of scientific thought in Europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned.
mechanical universe
Newton's idea that the universe functioned according to set laws, working together like a giant clock.
Enlightenment
18th-century European movement to apply the principles of the mechanical universe to the understanding of humanity. All answers are possible through reason.
John Locke
Taught the tabula rasa (blank slate) and that people have certain rights derived from nature (life, liberty, & property).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Philosophe who published the "Social Contract." He advocated a government based on the "general will."
Montesquieu
Philosophe who pushed for the separation of powers.
Voltaire
French Enlightenment thinker who pushed for complete religious freedom.
atheism
The doctrine or belief that there is no God.
deism
Enlightenment-era religion that suggested that, while God exists, God takes no interest in His creations.
suffrage
The right to vote.