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48 terms

AP US History - Chapter 30

The War to End War
STUDY
PLAY
George Creel
Journalist who headed Committee on Public Info. Created propaganda to get people willing to go to war. too good oversold Wilson's ideals - world expected too much
Zimmerman Note
proposed secret alliance btwn Mexico & Germany
Eugene Debbs
Socialist leader - convicted under Espionage Act sentenced to 10 years in prison
unrestricted submarine warfare,
caused WIlson to break diplomatic relations w/ Germany
Espionage Act of 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918
reflected fears about Germans and anti-war Americans
Scheck v US (1919)
Supreme Court ruled freedom of speech can be revoked when such speech poses a clear and present danger
Bernard Baruch
Headed WAr Industries Board - feeble powers, disbanded w/in days after armistice
Herbert Hoover
headed Food Administration (hero bec. he led massive food drive to feed starving in Belgium). Wage propaganda campaign to get people to ratio food - save food for export
Alice Paul
led National Woman's party - Quaker who opposed the war
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican chairman of Senate Committee on Foreign Relations - wasn't asked to go to peace talks, tried to defeat treaty of Versaille by reading 26 page document aloud in congresWislons
Warren G Harding
Republican Presidential Candidate - affable & malleable Ohioan, wealthy, back slapping small town newspaper editor, said he would work for a vague Association of Nations (not a League) voted in by women
James M. Cox
Democratic Candidate 1920 election - Governor of Ohio - supported League (FDR was his running mate)
self-determination
France demanded coal-rich German inhabited Rhineland & Saar Valley. Wilson opposed bec. it would violate their self determination
collective security
Provided by League of Nations - Wilson hoped this would protect all countries
conscription
Only way Americans could get an army - military draft required registration of all males age 18-45,
normalcy
people tired of idealism, intellectual, moralistic leaders thankful for a 2nd rate pres
Fourteen Points
Wilson's speech aimed at convincing America that fighting was the right thing to do
League of Nations
international organization that Wilson dreamed would provided a system of collective security
Committee on Public Information
Propaganda committee - get people willing to fight
Industrial Workers of the World
Wobblies - Industrial Workers of the World (aka I won't works) did not support war, these workers victims of worst working conditions in country (fruit & lumber)
19th Amendment
Gave Women right to wote
18th Amendment
Prohibition - prohibited Alcohol.
Bolsheviks
Communists in Russia, seized power in 1917, retreated from war in 1918 allowing Germans to fight France in West
doughboys
US Army infantry man, often sent to fight with very little training
Big Four
Wilson, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, George Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Britain
irreconcilables
William Borah of Idaho & Hiram Johnson of CA, militant isolationists, opposed League of Nations -their opposition was good for Allied adversaries, gave them stronger bargaining position
Treaty of Versailles
only 4 of Wilson's 14 points were honored, Vengence was tone not reconciliation. Made Wilson a fallen idol, condemned by liberals and imperialists alike
Work or Fight Rule of 1918
any unemployed male would be immediately drafted - discourages strikes
Wobblies
Industrial Workers of the World (aka I won't works) did not support war, these workers victims of worst working conditions in country (fruit & lumber)
National War Labor Board
headed by WilliamTaft - headed off labor disputes that might hamper war effort
1919 Steel strike
greatest strike in history, 250 thous strike to get owners to recognize their right to organize, owners brought in 30,000 African americans to break strike
Race Riots
sparked by African American migration to primarily white areas like St. Louis & Chicago.
National Woman's party
Pacifist group opposed war, led by Alice Paul
Nat'l American Woman Suffrage Association
supported the war, argued women take part in war effort to earn role in shaping te peace
Liberty Loans - Victory Loans
sponsored by treasury dept, earned 21 billion $ 2/3 cost of war.
Chateau -Thierry
first major engagement of american troops in European war
2nd battle of the Marne
marked beginning of a gErman withdrawal
St. Hihiel &Meuse-Argonne offensive
Two major battles fought by Amerians - MEuse -ARgonne largest battle in American history (lasted 47 days 1.2 million American troops)
General John J. Pershing
American commander in WWI
Paris Peace Conference
little more than old prewar colonialism, land divided up amongst victors, Wilson's #1 goal was to establish League of Nations
Security Treaty
France compromised on demand for Rhineland in exchange Britain & US promised to come to France's aid if Germany ever invaded again
Article X
controversial, alarmed congress bec. it morally bound US to aid any member victimized by external agression
Wilson's tour
Wilson toured country looking for support of treaty, embraced in Rocky Mtn region & Pacific coast, had a stroke in Pueblo Colorado
Republican plan for Treaty
tried to postpone it at first then wanted to ammend the treaty. Wilson fought back from his sick bed called upon all Democrats
Lodge reservations
14 formal reservations put forth by Senator Lodge -reserve right for Congreess to declare war
defeat of Treaty
because of Wilson's stubborness, would not compromise
Solemn Referendum of 1920
Wilson proposed to settle the treaty issue in Presidential campaign.
Harding's victory
death sentence for League of Nations - now weak bec. US wasn't included