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Western Civ Final
Terms in this set (132)
The policy of
or authority of an empire or nation over foreign "countries" or of acquiring and hiding colonies. During time, had low wages and bad working conditions, strengthen production, increase profits (
bad condition --> better economy
Division or consolidation of communal lands in Western Europe into individually owned farm plots → Led to Landowners experiencing new agriculture methods and small landowners
Explanatory (Motives of European Imperialism)
-Go on an
-Investigate unknown land/
Political (Motives of European Imperialism)
with other European nations (gain prestige)
national pride and security
Ideological (Motives of European Imperialism)
To believe one best way is best for all (thoughts, beliefs)
race was superior (Ethnocentrism)
-Other cultures were primitive (
-Great nations should have
Religious (Motives of European Imperialism)
to missionaries and their families
-Spread European values and
Economic (Motives of European Imperialism)
Division of Africa
Scramble for African lands 1880
-Discoveries of diamonds in 1867 and 1886
-Meeting in which European nations decided on rules for colonizing Africa
-Any European nation could claim land by notifying other nation and
proving to control
the continent with no thought to African ethnic or linguistic boundaries. Would divide culturally yet
united by land
and force (not natural) (Not much Africans can do)
-No African leader were present
(Reasons why Africa was fought over)
Voluntary association of workers (some job/field) (Workers' voice) (and protect what rights workers have) What they want: Higher pay, salary, healthcare, working conditions, breaks) (Ex. of actions: Strikes)
Kaiser Wilhelm II
-Well politik, bad-decision maker and navy-passionate leader committing himself to impactful, important political roles.
-Focused on proving to the rest of Europe that Germany was the strongest, largest, and the most unbeatable country (this would put Germany in many unneeded conflicts)
Otto Von Bismark (Views)
Believed in realpolitik (focused on uniting countries and making a stronger force, as a whole) Wanted to prevent Franco-Russian Alliance (too strong)
Kaiser Wilhelm II (Views)
Believed in weltpolitik (based decisions on making Germany the strongest, largest, and unbeatable) Pushed too far to get to the Franco-Russian Alliance.
Militarism- (a policy that glorified military power and kept an army always ready) (Long-term Cause WWI)
-Countries always had an army which increased
-Stressed the importance of
-Build up of weapons and competition in who has the most successful arsenal (railroads and transportation, which would eventually lead to an industrialization competition).
-Europe believed that to truly be great you needed a large/strong military
Alliances (Long-term Cause WWI)-
-Made to increase peace; led to war
-International rivalries lead to several alliances
-Dual Alliance (Germany and A.H.)⟶Triple Alliance (Italy, Germany, A.H.)
+Triple Alliance would be unstable since Austria-Hungary was dealing with conflicts with Russia, over the Balkans Region, making it fragile for treaties
+*Bismarck made to isolate France and protect Germany
+Also made a reassurance treaty with Russia that did not last*
-Triple Entente (France, Russia, G.B.)
Imperialism (Long-term Cause WWI)-
-Countries began to fight over who could take control of which colonies
-Arguments pushed countries towards war
-Competitions increased so distrust increased
Industrialization (Long-term Cause WWI)-
-Caused competition for raw materials and markets
-Ex. Germany was competing with Great Britain
-Competitions for mobilization
-Led to conflicts and war
Nationalism (Long-term Cause of WWI)-
-Unifying force but also competition in between countries and groups, to see who is the best
-(How) Rivalry would develop between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, and France
-Creates competition in markets and materials (usually against the powerful British "standards") and territory (France's ambition).
+The Balkans Region- Russia and Austria-Hungary would compete for the territory, while Russia thought of itself as the "protector"
+The "Black Hand" of Serbia would assassinate the Austro-Hungarian heir because of their tiredness towards their power over the country.
The Dual Alliance (1882)
Germany and Austria-Hungary would promise to aid each other if in the event by Russia or its allies (ex. France) attack.
Franco-Russian Alliance Military Convention (Aug. 18, 1892)
(France and Russia) Promised to be ready in time of conflict, against the Triple Entente/Germany/Austria, (through military supplies, soldiers, etc.) and ally countries of the Triple Alliance, yet would stay out of initiation of conflict otherwise
The Balkan Region was seen as a symbol of of the barrel gun powder, having only one act of violence or flare light it up into World War I (Austria-Hungary conference over it) (After their conquering, territories surrounding the region would be threatened and engage in conflict)
Short Term Causes of WWI
eakening of the Ottoman Empire
nnexation of Bosnia by Austria Hungary (1908)
ssassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (June 28, 1914)
ustria's Ultimatum to Serbia
June 28, 1914
Ferdinand and Sophie decide to visit
-(mistake because Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia (ultra-nationalist groups))
-20 Serbian assassins made the plan to kill the Archduke
-Each carry a revolver, two grenades, and a vial of cyanide
-Whoever gets the chance first will chose the way to kill him
-One threw a grenade but missed Ferdinand (20+ are killed)
-Plot is ruined
WWI Mistake #2-
-Ferdinand decides to visit the victims in the hospital (should have gone somewhere safe)
-Went down the wrong street and the car stalls
-Princip is on the same street
-Princip kills Ferdinand and Sophie
-A-H knows marching into Serbia would lead to a war with Russia so they decide to talk to Germany
-Germany (instant powerhouse, large population, industrialized)
-Wilhelm gives Austria "
" of support for Austria from Germany
Would act as a "
" (With Russia as its "Pioneer")
-Russia places troops on borders near Austria-Hungary and Germany
-Germany would be threatened and declare war (Russia and France) (Aug. 1, 1914)
-If one (country) started to mobilize, other (surrounding) countries would "compete"/race to also mobilize quicker.
Who is/isn't to Blame for the War?
-Some may argue in Austria's defense that they had "no choice", after Serbia's refusal to all of the ultimatum demands, since every other country would react in the same way (Would be Hitler's opinion).
-Some may say Germany's drive to be the best would be the blame (would say at the end)
Austria-Hungary gave Serbia an ultimatum
-Serbia was not willing to follow everything
-July 28, 1914 Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
a list of orders with consequences if not followed
Act of assembling and making both troops and supplies war-ready (Ex. Russia's army preparation)
France, Russia, Great Britain
(Oct. 7 1879)- defensive alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was created by treaty, as part of Bismarck's system of alliances to prevent/limit war. The two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia.
"Secret" alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy before WWI
Allied Powers (WWI)-
Russia, France, Italy, Great Britain
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
a symbol of full support
No Man's Land-
Area of land between two different sides trenches (Likely chances of stepping into this=dead).
Germany's military plan in which troops would "rapidly" defeat France, in 6 weeks, and then move east to attack Russia
-FAILED: (timing was key and in the end did not work out)
Russia had mobilized, quicker than Germany had expected, to the eastern front
+Belgian Resistance Underestimation (Stalled Germans giving Great Britain time to mobilize troops to France
+Great Britain got involved because had been threat to ally, Belgium, and could possibly be threat to itself)
+Style of Warfare: Trench Warfare (Fought in muddy trenches (for ambush, hiding, etc.)) German and French forces meet at the first battle of Marne (River in Northeast France)
+6 weeks became 4 years! (they thought they would be home for Christmas)
War with unrestricted weapons, boundaries, etc.
Treaty of Brest Litovsk-
The treaty that allowed Russia to stop fighting/exit the war but they had to give up A LOT of land, money, supplies, etc, and they were also dealing with their own internal revolution
Treaty of Versailles ("A Peace Built on Quicksand")
-Germany would have to take on many of its punishments
+It had to accept the blame for starting the war (its responsibility/sole blame)
+It had to pay €6,000 million for the damage done during the war (war reparations such as the lost lives, finances, etc.)
+Lost colonies/territory to France and Britain (Lost Alsace-Lorraine back to France).
+They were not allowed to form an alliance with Austria-Hungary
>No submarines/air forces
>Only able to have 6 battleships and a 100,000-men army
>No Rhineland troops in the 50-mile radius (between France and Germany (bufferzone))
-Germany would be put into economic turmoil, post Great War.
-The US during the time had had an economic boom but then came 1929, where the Great Depression would have a ripple effect throughout the world because of it World Power supremacy and international trade.
-The Treaty of Versailles was built to fail since Germany could only stay so long with peace before it engaged in conflict though "acts of vengeance". Hitler, at the time, also was building to undo all of its statements against Germany, rising German nationalism.
A telegram from Germany to Mexico stating if Mexico kept the US out of the war/stalled the US, they would give Mexico US land. (public!)
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare-
Naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning as opposed Tramadol prize rules
Costs or certain things that had needed to be given up
Under the fourteen points (underlined: main points)
-Put an end to secret treaties
-Freedom of the seas (U.S.W.)
-Free trade (removal of barriers)
Reduce National Armies, Navies, and supply of weapons
(Applied in Treaty of Versailles/Article 231 (Germany))
-Adjustment of colonial acclaim and treat natives fairly
-Change Russian territories self determination
-Belgium restored France regain territory (Alsace-Lorraine) (Applied in Treaty of Versailles)
-Frontier of Italy established on nationality
-Self-determination should be allowed for all the living in Austria-Hungary (Germany declared itself a republic, as Kaiser stepped down)
League of Nations
Italy (Vittorio Orlando), USA (Woodrow Wilson), Great Britain (David Lloyd George), and France (Clemenceau)
-The representatives of the Allied powers that were present at the Paris Peace Conference
Territory of the former Ottoman Empire that Britain and France received after the war
League of Nations-
Wilson's most important 14th point. The international peacekeeping organization; Job would be to protect nations and would negotiate peaceful solution toward conflicts. France wanted army however, to enforce laws (weakness #1). USA (World Power) would not be apart of it (weakness #2)
The belief that people could choose their own form of government
The state of not supporting or helping either side in a conflict and disagreement. Belgium would declare its neutrality prior to the war just before Germany decided to invade it though the Schlieffen Plan.
Practice of officially examining books, movies, etc. and suppressing unacceptable parts
Debt securities issued by the gov't to finance the military during war
May 7, 1915-
Sinking of the Lusitania
US entered WW1
+The Zimmerman telegram (this made the US mad because it was not Germanyś land to give away)
+Unrestricted submarine warfare (this made the US mad because they believed that the seas should be open and free and Americans were getting killed (Lusitania))
March 3, 1918-
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
-Russian exited the war
-They were running low on money, supplies troops, and they had their own revolution (1917: Russian Revolution)
+Point of Revolution: Remove Czar from power. New Gov. (Bolshevik/Communist) Lenin Trotsky (Red Army)
November 11, 1918-
-The agreement to stop fighting
June 28, 1919-
Treaty of Versailles
First Battle of the Marne
This would be the Allied Powers' (France's) first victory (Germany's first loss), and the French would start to gain more nationalism and soldier morale, since they had been losing after Germany's many winnings. This would fuel the rest of the Great War.
Second Battle of the Marne
This was a turning point because the Central Powers were starting to surrender and the war was coming to an end
Home Front (WWI)-
-Everything was reused/used (any scraps helped)
-Everything was rationed
-Women were given more opportunities for jobs and given more wages
-They were forced to work harder to make all the supplies that the soldiers needed
Western Front (WWI)-
Located in Northern France
Eastern Front (WWI)-
Ran through Germany and Russia
Weaponry of WWI-
As the quality of weaponry increased, different methods in killing during war increased. Money to make the supplies would increase as their effectiveness increased. More people would be killed in a shorter amount of time. More advanced and developed countries would have a better advantage in winning during battles, since their technology was more advanced. Soldiers were fighting faster than the actual artillery production.
Major Weapons of WWI-
Grenades (Took out many and easy for grenadier), Machine Guns (Effective but burned out), Poison Gas (Took out many), etc.
-Leader (Prime minister): Winston Churchill (Ottoman Empire)
-Goal: Supply Russia and help them mobilize
Would first invade through Naval warfare than transition to Land
-Failed: Nervous second-guessing gave time for opponents to travel and defeat
-Russia's state would only worsen
-Churchill would learn from his mistakes in WW2
Who wins WWI?
Ends in stalemate
-WW2 (Hitler's, Fascist dictators', rise to power)
+Hitler would rise to power, with his goal being to reverse all of the "proclamations" made by the Treaty of Versailles.
-Debt for the majority of the countries (excluding US, and Japan)
-Treaty of Versailles
-US becomes a World power
-Environment of desperation, bitterness, and resentment in Germany
-Women's role in Society (Changed since they had been the working majority/voice at the home front, while the male soldiers were at war)
-Balkan tension/conflict would still exist ("Hover in the atmosphere")
-37.5 million casualties
-Central powers paid a lot of money
-Dissolution of the Ottoman/Austro-Hungarian Empire
-Lost generation (after fighting for so long the young soldiers did not know what to do)
Soldier's Daily Life- Very Harsh!
-Would join the war with not high chances of returning to the family and friends.
-Had Rationed food and resources.
-Alive one day, dead the next. Low health (if not someone important, than little to no chance that the individual would be tended towards
+No antibiotics at the time
-Morale and Homefront support powered their drive to keep fighting.
-Male civilians would be thrown into the war, because of the need for soldiers.
-Average weight hold of supplies: 66 pounds.
-Leaders of armies would be making decision in luxury as they are ignorant of the harsh condition that soldiers face.
-Trenches were disease-filled:
+Infestation of rats: Would reproduce quickly, making disease spread quicker.
+Infestation of Frogs, Lice, Slugs.
>Lice would have soldiers scratch excessively causing infection, which would cause trench fever, and eventually death.
1915 Treaty of London (Pre-IOV Arrangements)
-Italy joins Allies. Was promised territorial concession at the end of war (NEVER HAPPENS
-Effect: Italians upset! Dissatisfaction: Rise of fascism (Mussolini-creator. Hitler would perfect)
Great Britain and France promises Arabs and Jews same territory as homeland (Pre-IOV Arrangements)
(Palestine; Ottoman Empire) (NEVER HAPPENS)
-Effect: Anger both Arabs and Jews. More tension between 2 groups.
Great Britain and France take control of lands of former Ottoman Empire as part of Sykes-Picot. (Pre-IOV Arrangements)
Germany Post WWI:
Reparations given by Treaty of Versailles (A LOT of Debt, Loss of Land, Military limitations, etc.) Economy in Ruins, Overcrowding,
a form of warfare in which surprise attacks with fast moving airplanes are followed by massive attacks with infantry forces
Non Aggression Pact (Nazi-Soviet Pact)
an agreement in which nations promise not to attack one another. Russia and Germany would form one, explaining Russia'a lack of involvement before the war. Germany did not want to fronts to fight on either. Would secretly agree to divide Poland and let Soviet Union take over Baltic Countries?
The Royal Air Force (British)
The German Air Force
Operation Sea Lion-
Hitler's plan to invade Great Britain by knocking out RAF and landing his soldiers in England
The nickname of a German general. Erwin Rommel
Hitler's plan to invade the Soviet Union
They were blamed for WW1 and had to play large amounts of money to the countries that won
They fortified their boundaries with Germany except for the Ardennes forest because they did not think an army could fit through
They, along with France, declared war with Germany after the invasion of Poland. Would later "save" WWII after its allies were struggling to fight.
They were annexed by Germany during the Anschluss
a portion of their land, Sudetenland, was given to Hitler at the Munich conference to appease him
Made non-aggression pact with Hitler
Hitler invaded them but only to receive a part of northern France
After Hitler invaded Poland WWII started
When they bombed Pearl Harbor the US declared war on them
to give in to a demand to make someone happy/stop fighting/satisfied
The part of Czechoslovakia that was given to Hitler to appease him
Germany, Italy, etc.
"Father/Leader" what Hitler was referred to as
willingness to fight or attack someone
Hitler illegally took this land back (Western Germany) France to shocked and appeased to do anything
League of Nations-
An organization created after WW1 under the Treaty of Versailles to keep peace
A conference between Germany, France, and Britain (Neville Chamberlain) to discuss the Sudetenland. France and Britain gave this land to Germany to appease him hoping this would end his violence. It looked like the "perfect democracy" but failed in the end.
Gave a realistic, futuristic view on Chamberlain's appeasement. Will act as leading voice for Britain's morale/nationalism and history-changing involvement in WWII
The fast-rising level of cost on necessary goods
Distributing system that Germany and the Allied Powers used to pay off Germany's war debt. At the same time, countries were gaining money by loaning money. The U.S. will have a huge part in the system. (Successful)
Stated that countries in the pact could not initiate/engage in conflict. However, there was no punishment for the countries that did engage. Purpose: To prevent War
Tragic/massive downfall or decrease in the economy
The Great Depression
After the stock market crash of October 1929, the U.S. went into a panic and wiping out millions of investors. Because of the world power's connection with multiple global economies, many other countries would be plummeted into a loss of money (ex. Germany-Dawes Plan)
aka. "Night of the broken glass" The Jewish population was treated horribly on this night(s) in Germany. The synagogues were destroyed along with Jewish shops and Jews were killed or sent to concentration camps.
The system in which Germans would eliminate Jews to create a stronger, healthier country.
Jail-written book explaining his ideals against Judaism and his German plans
A democracy made in Germany after the WW1 when the Kaiser fled
Why the Wiemar Republic failed?
>Article 48- This stated in time of emergency the president could issue a decree, but did not state what an emergency was.
>Proportional Representation- In this democracy people voted for a political party and with so many political parties being made and voted for, no one could get enough power to do anything.
-Did not seek classless society (everyone has own place)
-No link to philosophy
-Ex: Marx-Communism (Included Locke's ideals of democracy)
-Nationalistic as opposed to communists who hope to unite workers worldwide
Both Fascism and Communism
Ruled by Dictators; one Party
Denied individual rights
State was supreme
Militant political movement emphasizing loyalty to the state and obedience to the leader. A political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights and one-party rule by a dictator
-This promised: economic revival, punishment for those responsible for the situation, and restoration of national pride.
The overthrow of capitalism and the realization of communism. Advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
Society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
The political principles of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
Japan ("Rape of Beijing") (Aggressive Actions)
-Military leaders take control
-Japan attacked Manchuria (China) for rich resources (Had seized it, then industrialized)
-Chinese were more traditionally trained then militaristically
-Japanese/Chinese shoot each other at railroad (Chinese Surrendered, but Chinese continued fighting by sea)
Japan ("Rape of Beijing") Reaction (from the League)
-League protested but did not enforce (with military)
-Because the League didn't have a military to enforce and threaten with, countries could do anything in violation of the league (Ex. of appeasement).
Italy (Aggressive Actions)
-Mussolini conquered Ethiopia creating an accomplished Fascist empire.
-Had continued because did not get a harsh reaction from League
-Planned own aggression
Italy (Reaction (from the League))
League condemned attack but Britain, France had only let it happen to appease, to keep their roles as Great Powers.
Blitzkrieg "Lighting War"
This strategy focused on offensive weapons like tanks and planes. These were used on a narrow front to drive through enemy lines, which disorganized them. First used against Poland on September 1, 1939. Following uses included against Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France.
Battle of Britain
Once France was defeated, Hitler attacked G.B. The Luftwaffe bombed cities like London to hurt British pride, but the British RAF (Royal Air Force) fought back. The British had two weapons:
-Radar: Allowed British to know how many German planes were approaching and where.
-Enigma: Cracking the German Enigma code allowed the British to read secret German messages.
>Hitler was surprised by the British resistance and called off attacks on May 10, 1941. Proved that Hitler could be stopped.
Invasion of Balkan Peninsula- (Summer 1940)
Invading the Balkan countries was a necessary step in Hitler's plan to invade Russia because he needed these countries as bases. Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary willingly joined the Axis Powers, but Yugoslavia and Greece resisted until they fell. Hitler's success allowed him to begin Operation Barbarossa (attack USSR).
Eastern Turning Point-
Hitler invaded Russia, surrounding Leningrad and Moscow. When the cities refused to fall, he waited, intending to starve them. Waiting caused many casualties as winter approached. By the next summer, (1942) Hitler moved to Stalingrad, but the Russians launched a counterattack. Hitler surrendered February 2, 1943, after suffering another winter. Only 90,000 of his 330,000 soldiers survived.
Allies went in with 155,000 troops (containing from countries all over) and 50,000 vehicles Germany held advantage at battling position but fooled by Allied deception plan that battle was more North, causing them to spread and move slower. U.S. struggled landing 1st and 29th division. On the actual day, Allies lost 23,000 while Axis lost between 4000 and 9000. First Row of Infantry soldiers were hurt the most (suicide mission). After connecting beachheads, Allies would fight through land battles and U.S. would eventually lead to West Front of Germany. Won because of advance of technology on field and industrialized countries.
Hitler's Final Solution-
Seeing that murdering Jews in sweeping mass killings using the SS wasn't working, Hitler turned to this. People would be finger-picked to see which ones were fit (male, "healthy") and unfit (mostly women, children, disabled, elderly). Those that were fit would work in labor camps, eventually dying slowly through starvation, poor health conditions, "overworkment", etc. Those that were unfit would be sent to the "showers" where they would be showered in acidic liquid/fumes. Their bodies would then be burned among others.
Genocide of the different (JEWS, Gypsies, disabled, etc.) Used advanced technology on the defenseless. Jews were banned from own homes to ghettos. Hitler would dispersed the crowding Jews to other countries as a plan to eliminate them for his ideal country, however his "Hunger Plan" to put them in these poor conditions and starve them out did not work, leading to Final Solution. Extremely segregated.
Period of diplomatic hostility between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that developed after WWII. Happened because Germany was split into two parts to be controlled by the Allies. (Eastern = Soviet, Western = Britain, France)
-Berlin Wall built to divide the capital
United Nations (Differences)
U.S. a member
Formed after WWI
More inclusive (in members)
League of Nations (Differences)
Purpose- Promote Peace
Created after a World War
United and League of Nations (Similarities)
Did not have an army- could not enforce decisions
U.S. not a member
Formed after WWII
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