Human Geo Political Geography Terms
Terms in this set (77)
Subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on Earth's surface.
Area organized into a political unit and ruled by a established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Ability of a state to govern its territory free from the control of other states.
Group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity.
Contains 2 or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as separate nationalities.
State whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Nation of people without a land to legally occupy.
One's sense of attatchment toward an object or place.
A sovereign state compromising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Concept that ethnicities has the right to govern themselves.
Assertion by the government of a country that has a minority living outside its formal borders belongs to it historically and culturally.
An enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it.
A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country.
Small neutral state between two rival powers.
Country that is dominated by a more powerful nation.
A boundary line based on recognizable physiographic features, such as mountains or rivers.
Boundaries that are based on culture traits.
Boundaries of convenience drawn along lines of latitude or longitude without consideration for cultural or ethnic differences in an area.
Old political boundaries that no longer exist as international borders, but that have left an enduring mark on the local cultural or enviromental geography.
A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
A boundary line established before the area in question is well populated.
A boundary line that is established after the area in question has been settled and that considers the cultural characteristics of the bounded area.
A political boundary placed by powerful outsiders on a developed human landscape. Usually ignores pre-existing cultural-spatial patterns, such as the border that now divides North and South Korea.
Definition Phase in Boundary Creation
Phase in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated.
Delimitation Phase in Boundary Creation
The translation of the written terms of a boundary treaty into an official cartographic representation.
Demarcation Phase in Boundary Creation
Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall or other means.
Administration Phase of Boundary Creation
Phase in which a government enforces the boundary it has created.
Definitional Boundary Dispute
Conflict over the language of the border agreement in a treaty or boundary contract
Positional Boundary Dispute
Disagreement about the actual location of a boundary.
Territorial Boundary Dispute
Disagreement between states over the control of surface area.
Resource Boundary Dispute
(Allocational) disagreement over the control or use of shared resources, such as boundary rivers or jointly claimed fishing grounds.
Functional Boundary Dispute
Disagreement between neighboring states over policies to be applied to their common border; often induced by differing customs regulations, movement of nomadic groups, or illegal immigration or emigration.
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Group of states united for a common purpose.
A state's physical shape. there are five basic shapes, which are compact, prorupted, elongated, fragmeted, and preforated
A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
(Prorupt) , A type of territorial shape that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away from the main body of the territory
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
A state or territory that is very small in size.
Heartland or nucleus of a state, containing its most developed area, greatest wealth, densest populations, and clearest national identity.
Wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value.
A capital city deliberately sited in a state's frontier zone.
Loyalty to a particular nationality.
Figural representations, either individual or symbolic, religious or secular; more broadly, the art of representation by pictures or images, which may or may not have a symbolic as well as an apparent or superficial meaning.
Forces that tend to unite or bind a country together.
Forces that tend to divide a country.
Process by whixh a state breaks down through conflict among its ethnicities.
Process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality.
A feeling of collective identity based on a population's politico-territorial identification within a state or across state boundaries.
Term applied to associations created by three or more states for their mutual benefit and achievement of shared objectives.
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
International organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: a code of maritime law approved by the UN in 1982 that authorizes, among other provisions, territorial waters extending 12 nautical miles from shore and 200 nautical mile wide exclusive economic zones.
Lines made to distribute water ways when states are within 200 miles of each other.
Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources.
An international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security.
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
The study of the interactions among space, place, and region and the conduct and results of elections.
Redrawing legislative boundaries to benefit those in power.
Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people.
Political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Theory that states are living organisms that hunger for land and, like organisms, want to grow larger by acquiring more nourishment in the form of land..
Mackinder's Heartland Theory
A geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder during the first two decades of the twentieth century, that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. Mackinder further proposed that since Eastern Europe controlled access to the Eurasian interior, its ruler would command the vast "heartland" to the east.
Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
Liset and Rokkan; explains persistent regional patterns in voting behavior in terms of tensions pitting the national core area against peripheral districts.
Control of a territory already occupied by an indigenous society.
Attempt by a country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principals in an area.
Conference of Berlin
Meeting of 14 mostly European countries on how to divided up Africa amongst themselves disregarding African input or ethnic groups.
Action of changing from colonial to independent status.
A model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of the historical exploitation of poor nations by rich ones.
Economic and political strategies by which powerful states in core economies indirectly maintain or extend their influence over other areas or people.
Parts of the environment available to everyone but for which no single individual has responsibility--the atmosphere, fresh water, forests, wildlife, and ocean fisheries
State that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Government run by religious leaders.