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Terms in this set (65)
an educated guess, a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations, a proposed answer to a question
a factor that can change in an experiment
Well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
a summary of the results of the experiment and a statement of how the results relate to the hypothesis
the study of life, the science that studies living organisms
building blocks of matter, smallest unit of matter
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction, the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities
atomic number, Small, positively charged particles that are found in the nucleus of an atom.
small, uncharged particles that are found in the nucleus of an atom
negatively charged particles found outside the nucleus
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons, atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
charged particles that form during chemical changes when one or more valence electrons transfer from one atom to another, electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
a bond formed when atoms share one or more electrons
electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds, bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
bond created by the weak attraction of a slightly positive hydrogen atom to a slightly negative portion of another molecule, relatively weak bonds that form between the positively charged hydrogen atom of one molecule and the strongly electronegative oxygen or nitrogen of another molecule
the starting materials in a chemical reaction, the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction, Ending materials in a chemical reaction.
Homogeneous mixtures, a mixture where substances are distributed evenly. Has a solvent & solute.
Unstable physical mixtures of un-dissolved particles in a liquid., a mixture in which particles of a material are more or less evenly dispersed throughout a liquid or gas
the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur, minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, (n.) a substance that causes or hastens a chemical reaction; any agent that causes change
protein substances that speed up chemical reactions., Molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions., specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells, a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
single-celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, bacteria and archaea, divide by binary fission
organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended, The region of the cell between the cell membrane and the nucleus, the region of the cell within the membrane that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein, cluster of proteins and nucleic acids that constructs proteins in a cell
a structure in a cell that receives proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them, and distributes them to other parts of the cell, an organelle that receives proteins, packages them, and distributes them
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
Ribosomes are not found on its surface. It contains collections of enzymes that perform specialized tasks including the synthesis of membrane lipids and the detoxification of drugs.
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell, membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production, organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use, rod-shaped cell structures that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy, organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place
Process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference, Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy
The diffusion of molecules across a membrane through transport proteins
Organisms that are able to make their own food, An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products., animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work, adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
he found that aquatic plants produce oxygen bubbles in the light, but not in the dark. He concluded that plants need sunlight to produce oxygen
Using a bell jar, a candle, and a plant, this person found that a plant released a substance that kept the candle burning--a substance that we now know is oxygen (p. 205).
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Where does photosynthesis take place?
Reaction of photosynthesis that requires light; light energy is absorbed converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH
doesnt require sunlight because it uses carbon dioxide, ATP and NADPH are used to create glucose. also known as Calvin Cycle
Electron Transport Chain
a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP, a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane
light absorbing molecules, Molecules that absorb specific wavelengths of sunlight
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
Within the chloroplast, the dense fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
The process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
first step in releasing the energy of glucose , in which a molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen, the process by which cells break down molecules to release energy without using oxygen
Sources of Energy from cellular respiration
-Amino acids from protein breakdown, Fatty acids liberated from adipose cells, Pyruvic acid from glycolysis, and Oxygen from hemoglobin in blood or from myoglobin in muscle fibers go into cellular respiration in mitochondria
-Heat, 36 ATP, CO2, and H20 are produced by cellular respiration in mitochondria
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases, the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
division of the cytoplasm during cell division, The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.
two identical chromosomes that split and contain the same genetic material
a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape, the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis
cell structures made up of both centrioles and individual microtubule fibers that are involved in moving chromosomes during cell division, cell structures made up of both centrioles and individual microtubule fibers that are involved in moving chromosomes during cell division
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