Hon History Unit 7 WW2 (Stewart)
Terms in this set (39)
Greater Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Japan called its empire during World War II this; it included all of the conquered area in Asia
Hitler demanded that the ethnically German Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia be handed over to him; Czechoslovaks determined to defend themselves, France and Russia pledged to fight, but there was a conference held in Munich where representatives from France, Britain, Italy, and Germany (not Czechoslovakia or Russia) decided that the Sudetenland should be handed over to Hitler under the condition that he make no more territorial demands
Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict; A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
Laws originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Cash and Carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
Lend Lease Act
Approve by Congress in March 1941, The act allowed America to sell, lend or lease arms or other supplies to nations considered "vital to the defense of the United States."; replaced cash and carry, allowed US to help Britain
agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 in which the two nations promised not to fight each other and to divide up land in Eastern Europe
Isolationist group in America that insisted that America stay out of World War II; held rallies from 1939 to 1941; argued that affairs in Europe should be settled by Europeans and not Americans and stated that the Soviet Union was a greater eventual threat than Nazi Germany.
Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Hawaii; destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
"V" for victory
US Home Front
War Production Board
government agency that decided which companies would make war materials and how to distribute raw materials
WACs and WAVEs
female army and navy groups during WWII
National War Labor Board (NWLB)
A board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war
Office of Price Administration (OPA)
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
GI Bill of Rights
Law Passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher education
A Philip Randolph
America's leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories' refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
Congress on Racial Equality (CORE)
Civil Rights group formed in 1942 and committed to non-violent civil disobedience, such as the 1961 "Freedom Rides."
Organization that was founded in 1942 by James Farmer and George Houser.
created during WWII, civil rights organization which first used sit-ins to desegregate lunch counters, also organized freedom rides with SNCC
Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC)
group formed that intended to help African Americans and other minorities obtain jobs in the homefront industry during World War II.
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
Japanese-American Relocation Camps
following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Congress imprisoned 119,000 Japanese-American individuals in interment camps because the US was afraid they were spies; culmination of 40+ years of xenophobia
Korematsu v United States
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor.
War Labor Disputes Act
Was an American law passed on June 25, 1943, over President Franklin D. Roosevelt's veto. The Act allowed the federal government to seize and operate industries threatened by or under strikes that would interfere with war production, and prohibited unions from making contributions in federal elections.
Election of 1946
A Midterm election that displayed Truman's plummeting popularity
Act passed in 1947 that put increased restrictions on labor unions. Also, it allowed states to pass "right to work" laws: prohibited "union" shop (= workers must join union after being hired). It also prohibited secondary boycotts and established that the President has power to issue injections in strikes that endangered national health & safety ("cooling off" period)
states where workers in unionized companies do not have to join the union or pay union dues
House Un-American Activities Committee
A congressional committee created to search out disloyal Americans & Communists.
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Stalin demanded second front to FDR and Churchill. meant to occupy Germany on two fronts instead of just on on Russia. USA and GB go through France to Germany (D-Day); decision to open Second Front reached at Tehran Conference
It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to. The Allies wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender or face complete devastation
Battle of Stalingrad
(1942) World War II battle between invading German forces and Soviet defenders for control of Stalingrad; each side sustained hundreds of thousands of casualties; Germany's defeat marked turning point in the war
Big three decide to attack from the bottom of Europe and make their way up (start in Italy and move up)
Katyn Forest Massacre
A series of mass executions of Polish nationals and popular figures by the USSR. Stalin covered it up and blamed it on the nazis to held keep Poland's support.
D Day Invasion
Battle of Normandy, commanded by Dwight Eisenhower, turning point in Europe
June 6, 1944
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
a revolt that took place in April 1943 in the Warsaw Ghetto when the Germans attempted to deport the remaining inhabitants to Treblinka. The defense forces fought the Germans for 27 days before the ghetto was destroyed
Parliamentary ("free") elections were held in Poland on 19 January 1947, the first since World War II
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
War Refugee Board
A government agency in America created by FDR in 1944 against the will of the State Department to assist people threatened by the Nazis, and eventually was able to save 200,000 people, as well as give money to other countries to free Jews.