48 terms

Unit 03 - Cells and Tissues

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solute
component of a solution that is present in the smaller amount and is dissolved
cilia
cellular extensions that move substances along the cell surface; line upper respiratory system and uterine tubes
connective tissue
one of four major tissues that functions in support, storage, and protection; cells are embedded in a matrix
osmosis
diffusion of water, through a membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration; passive
cytoplasm
cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane
chromatin
structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factors (genes).
tight junction
membrane connections prevent the leaking of fluid between cells
translation
assembling proteins by decoding the information in messenger RNA
cytokinesis
the division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided; results in two cells
active transport
movement of substances through the cell membrane against the concentration gradient; vesicular transport & solute pumps are examples
microvilli
tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption
interphase
period of the cell cycle when the cell grows and performs its metabolic activities
diffusion
the passive movement of molecules (and ions) down their concentration gradient
cell
structural and functional unit of living organisms; the smallest unit of life
gene
one of the biological units of heredity located in chromatin; transmits hereditary information.
cell membrane
a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier, regulating what enters and exits a cell
cytoskeleton
network of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments that branch throughout the cytoplasm and serve a variety of mechanical and transport functions
base-pairing
base pairing rules in DNA: adenine and thymine; guanine and cytosine
epithelial tissue
one of four major type of tissue that form sheets of tightly packed cells that cover organs and line body cavities
passive transport
movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy; diffusion and filtration are major examples
adipose tissue
connective tissue that consists of adipocytes and is used for insulation and long-term energy storage; fat
hypertonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
hypotonic
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
glycoproteins
proteins with short chains of sugars attached to them; important membrane proteins that allow cell-cell recognition and interaction
endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane; phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
nucleolus
the organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled; located in the nucleus
gap junction
an cellular junction that allows the passage of materials between cells; communicating junction
desmosome
a type of intercellular junction in animal cells that functions as an anchor
filtration
movement of fluid through the cell membrane from a high pressure area to a lower pressure; passive
crenation
shrinking/shriveling of animal cells in a hypertonic solution
pinocytosis
process by which certain cells engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid
phagocytosis
process in which cells engulf and digest large substances; cellular eating
receptor-mediated endocytosis
active transport involving the intake of materials by binding to cell surface receptors
glycocalyx
sugar-rich covering of cells; composed of glycoproteins and glycolipids
goblet cells
a mucous secreting cell found within simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelial tissues
reticular connective tissue
type of connective tissue that is found in lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow
apical surface
an upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ
chromosomes
bodies within the nucleus made in DNA and proteins called the histones; contains genetic material
concentration gradient
measure of the difference in concentration between two regions
connexons
in a gap junction, a protein channel linking adjacent cells
enzymes
biological catalysts; usually functional proteins
exocytosis
expulsion or secretion of materials from a cell; active transport
extracellular matrix
substance in which connective tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein, polysaccharides, and other substances
facilitated diffusion
process in which substances are transported across a plasma membrane with the concentration gradient with the aid of carrier (transport) proteins; passive process; channel and carrier mediated versions
selective permeability
process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out
simple diffusion
net movement of dissolved particles down their concentration gradient
solute pumps
protein carriers energized by ATP; move ions against concentration gradient
basement membrane
structure that attaches most epithelia to underlying tissue; consists of carbohydrates and proteins secreted by the epithelia and the underlying connective tissue
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