37 terms

Unit 02 - Basic Chemistry

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unsaturated fats
fats that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms; liquid at room temp
valence shell
outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom
amino acids
monomers of proteins with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end; contain C, H, O, and N.
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic weight
average mass of all naturally-occurring isotopes of a given element
buffers
chemicals that act to resist changes in pH; albumin and hemoglobin are examples
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
carbohydrates
composed of C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio
cholesterol
a steroid that forms an essential component of cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids
compound
substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
covalent bonds
bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms; come in polar and non-polar variations
decomposition reactions
reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances.
dehydration synthesis
chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule
disaccharides
2 monosaccharides joined together; sucrose, maltose, and lactose
exchange reactions
two molecules exchange atoms or groups of atoms
AB + CD --> AC + BD
fatty acids
long hydrocarbon skeleton, with usually 16-18 carbons, at the end has a carboxyl group attached to a hydrocarbon
hydrogen bonds
weak bonds; usually between hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule
hydrolysis
chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion
inorganic compounds
compound that does not contain the element carbon or contains carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen
ionic bonds
bonds formed by a transfer of one or more electrons from an atom to another ex: NaCl
ions
electrically charged atoms
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
lipids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; less oxygen than carbohydrates
molecules
chemical substances made of two or more atoms that are bonded together by covalent bonds
monosaccharide
simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate; glucose, galactose, fructose, ribose
nucleic acids
class of large organic polymers that includes DNA and RNA
nucleotides
monomers of nucleic acids; contain C, H, O, N, and P.
organic compounds
compounds that contain carbon and usually hydrogen
pH
measure of the hydrogen ion concentration; logarithmic scale from 0 to 14
phospholipids
lipid made up of a glyerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group; has two hydrophobic tails and a polar, hydrophilic head
polysaccharides
polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions; starch, glycogen, & cellulose are common examples
proteins
contains nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; composed of polymers of amino acids; structural and functional forms
proton acceptors
bases remove hydrogen ions (protons) from a solution
proton donors
acids add hydrogen ions (protons) to a solution
radioisotopes
isotopes with unstable atomic nuclei that release radiation as the nuclei decompose
saturated fats
fat that is solid at room temperature and found in animal fats
synthesis reactions
two or more small molecules combine to form a larger one
A+B = AB; Dehydration synthesis
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