29 terms

Unit 01 - The Human Body: An Orientation

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abdominopelvic cavity
below diaphragm. Contains peritoneal, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
anatomical position
erect, feet forward, arms at side with palms facing forward, head facing forward
anatomy
study of the structure of the body and the relationship of its parts to each other
coronal section
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
diaphragm
a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
dorsal body cavity
contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
homeostasis
tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; maintain a set point
homeostatic imbalance
a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease
levels of structural organization
chemical level - cellular level - tissue level - organ level - organ system level - organism level
mediastinum
area above the diaphragm and between the lungs where the heart lies
metabolism
all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
midsagittal (median) section
section that divides the body along the midline into left and right halves
negative feedback
primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable triggers a response that counteracts the initial change.
physiology
study of function of the body
positive feedback mechanisms
response of the body that increases the original stimulus and moves the variable farther from its original value; examples: blood clotting, birth, immune response
spinal cavity
inferior portion of the dorsal body cavity, runs within the vertebral column, encloses the spinal cord
thoracic cavity
cavity that contains heart and lungs
transverse section
cut made along a horizontal plane to divide the body into superior and inferior regions
ventral body cavity
cavity that contains the thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
superior (cranial or cephalic)
toward the head and upper body
inferior (caudal)
below another structure, pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body
anterior (ventral)
front of the body
posterior (dorsal)
back of the body
medial
nearer to the midline
lateral
away from the midline
proximal
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
distal
away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment
superficial (external)
toward or at the body surface
deep (internal)
away from the body surface more internal