239 terms

Criminal Justice Midterm

Series of midterm questions.
Crime and justice are issues of public policy. Why
They are addressed by the government.
Who argues that we need to focus more upon "justice" not "criminal" in the system of criminal justice?
Reiman urges policies that...
Establish economic and social justice.
According to the text, which of the following groups favor stricter enforcement of the law?
In which of Packer's models would the adversarial system be most likely used?
Due process.
The goals of controlling crime and protecting the rights of individuals are...
Difficult to achieve
A model of the criminal justice system that emphasizes efficiency, speed, and finality and the capacity to apprehend, try, convict, and dispose of a high proportion of offenders is called the...
Crime control model
A model of the criminal justice system that emphasizes the adversarial process, the rights of defendants, and the formal decision making procedures is called the...
Due process model
Which of the following are values that must be respected in a democracy by the police, prosecutors, judges, and correctional officials?
All of these.
Crimes, such as murder or assault, that are traditionally "wrong in themselves" are called...
Mala in se
Crimes, such as gambling or prostitution, that re not "wrong in themselves" but are prohibited by government are called...
Mala prohibita
Criminal acts often termed "street crime" or "ordinary crime" that are the least profitable and least protected are called...
Visible crime
An example of a visible crime is...
Crimes committed in the context of a legal business or profession are called...
Occupational crime
An example of an occupational crime is...
Price fixing.
Historically associated with images or certain ethnic groups, this framework within criminal acts are committed is called...
Organized crime.
Offenses against morality involving a willing and private exchange of goods and services that are in strong demand, but are illegal are called...
Victimless crimes.
Criminal acs by either the government, or against the government, that are carried out for ideological purposes are called...
Political crime
An example of a political crime is...
According to Cole and Smith, which is not an explanation for the recent drop in both violent and property crime...
People are more educated about the societal costs of crime.
Hate crimes are...
Violent crimes aimed at individuals of a particular race, ethnicity, sexuality, or religion.
The term referring to the idea that much more crime occurs than is reported to police is called...
Dark figure of crime.
Where does the U.S. rank in homicide rates among industrialized nations?
How do Cole and Smith describe the crime situation in Iceland?
Little crime
When compared to the United States, Icelandic crime rates are...
Extremely low
A statistical summary of crimes reported to the police is known as the...
According to the chart below, which violent crime are people least likely to report?
Simple assault
A source of crime data from interviews conducted to gather on unreported as well as reported crimes is called...
Why does the NCVS not measure homicide?
You cannot survey victims of homicide
Which is TRUE, concerning how we measure crime?
The UCR and NCVS blur and distort measurement because of differences in how crime is measured by each.
According to the lifestyle exposure model, who is most likely to be victimized because of where they live and how they spend their leisure time?
Young black males.
Which is TRUE concerning race and crime victims?
African-Americans and other minorities are most likely to be victims of violent crimes.
According to the Lifestyle Exposure Model, which of the following does not affect victimization?
Which of the following is more closely linked to exposure to crime?
Living in a city.
Crime in poor areas is...
We cannot draw any conclusions because others factors are also responsible.
The fraction of violent crimes committed against women by acquaintances and relatives is...
The intangible cost of crime (pain, trauma, lost quality of life) are estimated to be...
450 billion
Which of the following is TRUE about the fear of crime?
Crime rates are decreasing and Americans are fearful of crime
The fear of crime is greatest in...
Urban areas
The fear of crime is fed by...
Which of the following is not a main principle of classical criminology?
Punishment should be tailored to each individual person.
Which type of criminology used science to study the body, mind, and environment of the offender?
If a person is defined as criminogenic, this means that he/she...
Was born a criminal
Criminal behavior viewed as having been caused by a mental condition, a personality disturbance, or limited to intellect is the focus of...
Psychological explanations
What stage of life is most significant in Sigmund Freud's theory of personality?
Early childhood
Freud's psychoanalytic theory focuses upon...
Unconscious drives and forces explaining crimes.
Psychoanalytic theory explains criminal behavior as resulting upon...
underdeveloped or overdeveloped superego.
An explanation of criminal acts that argues being a member of a social group shapes behavior is called...
A type of social process theory that stresses that social links to keep people in line with accepted norms is called...
control theory
The idea that any person regardless of education, class, or upbringing can become a criminal is called...
Social process theory
Who created hte theory of differential association?
Edwin Sutherland
Criminal activity where family and peers are primary influences is called...
Learning theory
What are the three types of social process theories?
Learning, control, and labeling
Which of the following theories involves the use of criminal law to control society's poor and have-nots?
social conflicts.
Which of the following argued that the women's movement increased the role of women in criminal activity?
Freda Alder
Prior to the 1970s, why was it assumed that women did not commit serious crimes?
Women were very dependent and nurturing.
In relation to men, women commit...
less crime
Most women criminals come from...
lower class families
In relation to men, women commit...
Significantly less crime.
Women's share of arrest is highest for which type of crime?
According to Cole and Smith, which following is NOT a goal of the criminal justice system?
dramatizing crime
Which of the following related to the goals of the criminal justice system is TRUE?
Decisions must be made that reflect legal, social, political, and moral values of society.
The concept of dividing power between a central (national) government and regional (state) governments is called...
Which of the following administer prisons, jails, and other corrections facilities and programs?
All of the above
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the criminal justice system and the US constitution?
The US Constitution does not discuss the criminal justice system specifically.
The authority to make decisions without reference to specific rules or facts, using instead one's own judgement is referred to as...
A key concept in the criminal justice process involving the mutual transfer of resources among individual actors is called...
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of criminal justice system?
Independence of actors.
The determination of whether or not a defendant is guilty is called...
The United States has a...
Dual Court System
When a person is physically taken into custody, this is called a(n)...
A "true bill" coming from a grand jury and charging a suspect with a specific crime is called a(n)...
A court order issued by a judge authorizing police officers to make arrests or search premises is called a(n)...
Most defendants whose charges are not dropped ultimately...
Plead guilty
The who is "key link between the police and the courts" because he/she considers the facts of the case and decides whether there is reasonable cause to believe an offense was committed is the...
What layer of the criminal justice wedding cake involves celebrated cases that are highly unusual with great public attention resulting in a jury trial?
What layer of the criminal wedding cake consists of misdemeanors?
What layer of the criminal justice wedding cake consists of serious felonies?
The criminal justice wedding cake shows that...
Different cases receive different kinds of treatment.
What layer of the criminal justice wedding cake deals with felonies of lesser concern?
The State of Michigan v. Christopher Jones illustrated...
The prosecutor's use of multiple charges to pressure/
A serious crime usually carrying a penalty of death or incarceration for more than one year is called a(n)...
According to Cole and Smith, which of the following is NOT an explanation for the racial and ethnic disparities that exist with the criminal justice system.?
Minorities are actually incarcerated at a lower rate and the media has created the disparity.
The inequality of treatment of one group bu the criminal justice system, compared to the treatment accorded other groups is called...
Compared to whites, African-Americans and Hispanics are drawn into the criminal justice system at a...
Much higher rate
How much greater is the per capita incarceration rate for African-Americans as compared to whites?
Seven times as great
According to Cole and Smith, which of the following is an explanation for the racial and ethnic disparities that exist within the criminal justice system?
All of the above are explanations according to Cole and Smith.
Of all arrests, how many involve African-Americans?
Federal sentencing guidelines punish users of crack cocaine about one hundred times more harshly than users of powder cocaine. This fact reflects which of the textbook's explanations for racial disparities?
Racial insensitivity and unequal treatment in society can shape criminal justice policy.
The definitions of crimes and people eligible for punishment are spelled out in...
Substantive criminal law.
The processes followed by police, prosecutors, and judges as well as the rights possessed by suspects and defendants are defined by...
Procedural criminal law.
Laws and rules made by federal, state, and local agencies are called...
Administrative regulations.
An act can be deemed criminal if it could do harm that the law seeks to prevent. This is called an....
inchoate offense.
For an act to be a crime, the intent and the act must exist simultaneously. This is called...
If a person has a guilty mind or a blameworthy state of mind, this describes the element of,,,
mens rea
Which of the following indicates theat fora crime to occur there must be an act of commission or omission by the accused?
actus rea
The elements of a crime consist of...
attendant circumstances, mens rea, and actus rea.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning Islamic and American criminal law?
They have major differences between them.
The phrase that distinguishes murder from nonnegligent manslaughter is:
malice afterthought
Punishments bade on Islamic law tend to be _____ punishments based on law in the United States.
More severe than
Which of the following is a necessary element in the definition of rape?
A major exception to the mens rea principle is called....
Strict liability.
Entrapment occurs when:
A police officer entices a citizen to commit a crime.
When people break the law in order to save themselves or prevent a greater harm, they will likely use this defense in court:
The idea that insanity is caused by many factors, not all of which may be present in every case is called the...
Durham rule
Which of the following is TRUE about the insanity defense?
The insanity defense is rarely used by criminals
The test used by most states to determine insanity today is called the:
Right-from-wrong test
Which amendment protects privacy by barring unreasonable searches by police?
The right to a fair trial is found in the...
Which Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court led a legal revolution that expanded the constitutional rights of criminal defendants?
Which of the following landmark US Supreme Court required courts to provide attorneys for poor defendants facing the death penalty?
Powell v. Alabama.
Which amendment contains a warrant clause?
The double jeopardy clause is found in the...
Fifth Amendment
The privilege against self-incrimination is found in the...
Fifth Amendment
The right to counsel in felony cases was applied to the states in the landmark case of...
Gideon v. Wainwright
The right to a trial by jury is guaranteed by the...
Sixth Amendment
The right against cruel and unusual punishment is found in the...
Eighth Amendment
Which amendment requires that the amount of bail not be excessive?
Eighth Amendment
What can states do to expand criminal defendants' rights if the US Supreme Court will not protect such rights?
State courts can use their state constitutions to protect defendants' rights.
In old England, when groups of families agreed to uphold the law, keep order, and bring violators to a court, this was called the...
In 1285, England developed a system in which individuals were chosen within each community to apprehend criminals. This was established by the....
Statute of Wincester
In London, police commissioners named after Sir Robert Peel were called....
Which historical era involved close ties between the police and local leaders of government?
The political era
The historical era of policing known as the political era occurred between...
The political era of policing was characterized by...
Hiring of officers through connections to elected officials
Which historical era was influenced by the Progressives?
The professional era
Which of the following is NOT an element of the model of professional policing?
The police force should be actively involved in politics
Which of the following was a leading advocate of professionalism within the police force?
O.W. Wilson
The community based model of policing occurred between...
In their article entitled "Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety." James Wilson and George Kelling argued that police should work more on...
The little problems such as maintaining order.
When police arrest subway fare-beaters, loiters, and panhandlers, they are focusing upon....
Quality of life crimes
Throughout the United States, police are characterized by...
Fragmentation and a local orientation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation came to prominence under leadership of...
J. Edgar Hoover
Which of the following areas is not given emphasis by the FBI?
Blue collar crime
A police function that is a broad mandate to prevent behavior that disturbs the peace or involves face-to-face conflict is called...
Order maintenance
If police officers provide first aid, rescue animals, or help the homeless, this is an example of which police function?
According to public opinion polls, which function is most important in the minds of citizens?
Law enforcement
Which of the following is TRUE concerning police policy?
Decisions about how police resources will be used affect who gets arrested.
Which of James Q. Wilson's styles of policing is marked by professionalism and emphasis on law enforcement?
What function are the police most likely to be providing in this image?
Order maintenance
In the final analysis, who decides who an officer should define and handle a situation involving the application of the law?
The officer on the scene
Which of the following is TRUE about the use of discretion by a police officer?
The closer the relationship between the alleged criminal and the victim, the more variable the use of discretion.
Studies of past police practices regarding domestic violence found that....
Police were less likely to intervene when wives were victimized by their husbands.
A strategy for addressing domestic violence that is supported by some research is...
make arrest in all cases
Highly publicized cases of women receiving injuries in the presence of police showed that
Police officers may face lawsuits if they do not assist a victim of domestic violence.
Which of the following best describes the relationship of police to minorities?
Which of the following constitute "special populations"?
All of the above.
Which of the following racial group(s) views the police as treating racial groups fairly?
The recognition that the control of crime cannot rest solely with the police illustrates the idea of...
Community crime prevention
Which of the following is FALSE concerning the job of a police officer?
Pay scales are high
Which of the following must recruits pass to become a police officer?
All of the above (psyhco, background, fitness, physical)
Which of the following is true regarding the changing profile of a police officer?
The percentage of women had doubled since the 1970's, but females still only comprise about 1 in 10 officers.
Which of following is TRUE of women in the police force?
Many people still believe that women are not tough enough to confront dangerous criminals.
The process in which members learn the symbols, beliefs, and values of a group is called...
When a group shares symbols, beliefs, and attitudes, this is referred to as a(n)...
Patrol officers are expected to handle how many types of difficult situations?
A mulititude
A set of emotional and behavioral characteristics developed by members of an occupational group in response to a work situation and environmental influences is called the...
Working personality
Which of the following is NOT a key issue in understanding the police subculture?
Acceptance of independent actions by other officers
Which two elements of police work define the personality?
danger and authority
Which elements are most important in determining if citizens will respect and obey officers during an encounter?
The officers' demeanor
Most police work is reactive, which means police...
Respond to citizen calls for service
Which of the following is an example of proactive strategy to combat crime?
Responding to crimes without victims with a stakeout.
When calls for service are the main instigators of police action, this is called....
Incident-driven policing
Which of the following is a consequence of the policy of differential response?
The saving of police resources.
Within a police department, the duties of a 911 operator are...
Complex and stressful
A system that assigns priorities to various calls for service is called...
Differential response
The percentage of crimes that police believe they have solved through an arrest is called...
Clearance rate.
Which of the following is TRUE about measuring police productivity?
The clearance rate and crime rate do not give an accurate picture.
Which of the following is an operational unit in a police department?
All of the above (investigation, traffic, patrol, vice)
The extent to which departments create specialized units depends upon...
The size of the city and the police force
Which type of police officers account for two-thirds of all sworn officers?
Police functions that directly involve field operations such as patrol and investigation are called...
Line functions.
Preventive patrol emphasizes:
Making police presence known
Which police unit identifies, apprehends, and collects evidence against lawbreakers?
A classic study of large police departments found that a key factor in solving crimes was...
Identification of the perpetrator by the victim or witnesses.
Traffic regulation is a ______ job of the police
Which of the following is a vice offense?
Crimes reported graph
The probability of arrest is highest while the crime is in progess
One important component of community policing is:
A brief interference with a person's freedom of movement with a duration that can be measured in minutes is called a...
A significant deprivation of liberty because a person is taken into police custody, transported to the police station or jail, and processed into the criminal justice system is called an...
In what circumstance is the totality of circumstance used?
To determine whether probable cause exists
Which doctrine permits officers to notice and use as evidence items that are visible to them when they are permitted to be?
Plain view doctrine.
Which of the following senses can be used to justify a warrant less search?
All of the above
In what case did the court decide plain view doctrine permits officers to notice and use as evidence items that are visible to them when they are in a location that they are permitted to be?
Coolidge v. New Hampshire
What is most likely occurring in the image below?
A systematic stop looking for drunk drivers
The US Supreme developed the "stop and frisk" exception whereby a police officer could pat down a suspicious person without a warrant in the landmark case of...
Terry v. Ohio
What is the purpose of allowing searches incident to lawful arrests?
To make sure the arrestee does not have a weapon
Which of the following is FALSE concerning search warrants?
Police officers do need a search warrant, even if a person waives his/hers Fourth Amendment rights
According to US v Drayton, police officers
Are not obligated to notify citizens they have a right to say "no" to a search
Which of the following is contained in the Fourth Amendment?
Warrant clause
The US Supreme Court establishes that criminal defendants must be read their rights in...
Miranda v. Arizona
Which of the following is contained in the fifth Amendment?
The right to remain silient
Which of the following is not part of the Miranda warnings?
The right to a speedy trial
Miranda rights are drawn from the...
Fifth and Sixth Amendments
Which of the following are involved in the Miranda warnings?
All of the above
The supreme court ruled that statements produced after police beat suspects were inadmissible in
Brown v. Mississippi
Which two decisions by the Court laid the foundation for Miranda v. Arizona?
Escobedo v Illinois and Massiah v. US
When an urgent situation of significant social importance outweighs the necessity of respecting individuals' rights, this is referred to as the...
Public safety exception
Who wrote the Court's opinion in Miranda v. Arizona?
Earl Warren
The Supreme Court recently repeated its endorsement of the Miranda requirement in...
Dickerson v. US
The US Supreme Court applied the Fourth Amendment to the states in...
Wolf v. Colorado
In the 1980's, which of the following statements is true concerning the US Supreme Court's treatment of the exclusionary rule?
The Court created exceptions to limit the applicability of the rule.
Which chief justice of the US Supreme Court began to create exceptions to the exclusionary rile?
Warren Burger
Police were allowed to use evidence in a case where the warrant was incorrect in...
Maryland v. Garrison
The Supreme Court created the exclusionary rule in the case of....
Weeks v. US
The Supreme Court created the inevitable discovery exception to the exclusionary rule in the case of....
Nix v. Williams
The US Supreme Court created the good faith exception in the case of...
US v. Leon
Which of the following does not allow the use of the exclusionary rule?
Grand jury proceedings
Which of the following is TRUE about the use of new technology in policing?
New technology may raise issues regarding constitutional rights.
What type of force may police may employ in carrying out their jobs?
Legitimate and reasonable
According to your textbook, a recent study determined that this was the single largest predictor of police use of force?
Citizens who use force against police first
Citizens may use the term police brutality to refer to:
All of the above might constitute police brutality
What US Supreme Court case involved a ruling that police are not supposed to use deadly force in apprehending unarmed fleeing felons>
Tennessee v. Garner
The US Supreme Court ruled that police must use objectives reasonableness in judging whether to use deadly force in the case of...
Graham v. Connor
Officers who accept payoffs that happen to come their way are called...
grass eaters
Which of the following occurs when officers receive a cash "gift" from offenders in order for them to avoid prosecution?
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism used to control the police?
United Nations resolutions
Holding polic officers responsible for any unprofessional (or criminal) behavior is referred to as:
Civic accountability
Which of the following is FALSE about internal affairs?
Internal affairs does not need sufficient resources
Which of the following is a mechanism used to control the police?
All of the above
Which unit in a police department receives and investigates complaints against officers?
Internal affairs.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning internal affairs?
It is difficult for internal affairs to get officers to provide informatio
How many states have civilian review boards to hold police accountable?
Thirty-Six states.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning police accreditation?
It is voluntary whether all police departments follow nationally recognized standards
The supreme court ruled that lawsuts can be filed against the individual officers and agencies when civil rights are violated by the department in...
Monell v. Department of Social Services for the City of New York
What is known about polygraph, or lie detector tests?
It is unreliable
Which of the following forensic tools compares proteins and antigens that can vary from person to person?
The acronym CODIS stands for:
Combined DNA Index System
Which of the following is TRUE about weapons technology?
Police departments need to consider nonlethal because departments have been sued over injuring or killing suspects
Law enforcement officers used a thermal imaging device at a house to to detect unusual heat sources that might indicate marijuana being cultivated under grow lights. Their efforts led to a search of the home and the discovery of 100 marijuana plants. The Supreme Court declared this an illegal search in...
Kyllo v. United States
For purpose of apprehending criminal offenders, which of the following is TRUE concerning weapons technology?
Nonlethal weapons would most likely be used on suspects who might be harmful to themselves or others.
Which of the following is considered a new technology in weapons?
Which of the following is TRUE about private policing?
It developed over a long period of time
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the rise in private policing?
Increase in supply of people wanting to become police officers
According to the chart, how many people will be working in private security in the year 2010?
2.1 million
Which of the following is true about public police officers working for private firms?
It can be legal for public police officers to work for private firms and they retain their powers and status as police personnel.
Which model designed to manage off-duty employment of officers permits close control by police supervisors of the off-duty work performed by their officers?
Department contract model
Which model lets officers contract independently with permission?
Officers contract independently with permission.