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7C: Attitude and behavior change
Terms in this set (71)
The way in which we acquire new behaviors
Anything to which an organism can respond
Repeated exposure to the same stimulus can cause a decrease in response
Recovery of a response to the original stimulus after habituation has occurred. Often occurs when a second, different stimulus occurs and interrupts the habituation process.
Associative learning. Two types?
Pairing or associating two stimuli or between a behavior and a response. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning
An unconditioned stimulus that produces an instinctive, unconditioned response is paired with a neutral stimulus (there is no pre-existing response to it). With repetition, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that produces a conditioned response. This process = acquisition
How can you tell conditioned and unconditioned responses apart?
Look at which stimulus is causing them. Unconditioned stimuli -> unconditioned response. Conditioned stimuli -> conditioned response
Behavior is changed through the use of consequences. Reinforcement INC the likelihood of a behavior. Punishment DEC the likelihood. Schedule of reinforcement matters. Can be based on ratio of behavior to reward or on an amount of time. Can be fixed or variable. Hardest to extinguish behaviors learned through variable-ratio schedules:
Loss of conditioning to a stimulus, if the conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus enough times. If bell rings often enough w/o meat, dog may stop salivating when bell sounds.
If an extinct conditioned stimulus is presented again, a weak conditioned response can occur
A stimulus similar enough to the conditioned stimulus can also produce the conditioned response
Opposite of generalization. Organism learns to distinguish between 2 diff stimuli.
If I add a stimulus, what is the name of this?
What is an example of positive reinforcement?
Money - anything that is given (added) that causes behavior to continue
Gifts for friends which makes them happy and continue to be your friend
What is an example of negative reinforcement?
Taking an aspirin to relieve a headache - it increases the behavior in the future, but it removes something unpleasant. If I take an aspirin, I won't have a headache - makes me want to take aspirin next time I have headache - increase the frequency of behavior.
Showing up early to an appointment to avoid being late for the appt.
What is an example of positive punishment?
Making someone pay a fine for stealing - reduces the likelihood of behavior in future
What is an example of negative punishment?
Taking away your computer if you do badly on an exam - reduces likelihood of behavior in future
What are the 2 types of negative reinforcers?
Escape learning - reduce unpleasantness of something that already exists (headache)
Avoidance learning - prevent avoidance of something that has yet to happen
What is a primary reinforcer?
Something an organism responds to naturally, without conditioning - like fish for dolphin
What is a secondary or conditioned reinforcer?
Something that has been paired with a primary reinforcer enough that a conditioned response has been developed
What is the difference between a fixed-ratio and a fixed-interval schedule?
Fixed-ratio: reinforce behavior after a specific number of performances of that behavior. Ex: Reward a rat with food every third time it presses a bar. Continuous reinforcement - a type of FR schedule when behavior is rewarded EVERY TIME it is performed.
Fixed-interval: Reinforce first instance of behavior after a specific time interval elapsed. Ex: Rat gets a pellet, needs to wait 60 seconds before it can get another pellet.
What is the difference between a variable-ratio and a variable-interval schedule?
Variable-ratio: Reinforce a behavior after a varying number of performances of the behavior, but average number of performances needed to receive a reward is relatively constant. Ex: Reward after 2 bar presses, 8, 4, 6 (avg 5)
Variable-interval: Reinforce a behavior the first time that behavior is performed after a varying interval of time. Rat receives reward after 30, 90, 60 seconds etc
Which reinforcement schedule works the best?
Variable-ratio - most resistant to extinction. VR = Very Rapid response rate and Very Resistant to extinction. Rat will keep pressing the bar with the hope that the next press will be the "right one." Fixed schedules have a brief period of no responses because it has figured out what behavior is necessary to receive the pellet. Gotten lazy and wants to conserve energy!
Process of rewarding increasingly specific behaviors. Ex: If I want to train a dog to jump through a hoop and roll on its back, I would reward behavior only if the previous behavior is done. Uses operant conditioning (rewards)
Why is gambling and gambling addiction so difficult to treat or extinguish?
Because it is often based on variable-ratio schedules. The probability that I will win on any individual pull of a slot machine is the same, but I keep hoping it will be the next one that will be the "right one."
Learning that occurs without a reward but that is spontaneously demonstrated once a reward is introduced. Ex: Rats showed how to run through maze and then given a reward for completing the maze on their own did just as well as rats trained with rewards along the way.
Problem solving involves trial-and-error approach?
No - problem solving involves stepping back and analyzing the situation, responding correctly the first time
Why might researchers run into instinctive drift when trying to train animals?
Instinctive drift is the difficulty in overcoming instinctual behaviors
The process of learning a new behavior or gaining information by watching others
What is the Bobo doll experiment?
Observation of adult aggressive behavior influenced later behavior in children presented with the same toy, without reinforcement or punishment of the behavior.
What is the relationship between mirror neurons and learning?
Mirror neurons fire when someone performs an action and when individual observes someone else performing that action. Involved in motor processes and empathy (see someone else experience an emotion)
Which of the following might cause a person to eat more food during a meal: eating each course separately and moving to the next only when finished with the current course, or interrupting the main course several times by eating side dishes?
*** Mixing it up causes dishabituation for the taste, so you eat more overall.
Eating each course before moving on causes habituation. Each bite causes less pleasurable stimulation so people feel less desire to keep eating.
A college student plays a prank on his roommate by popping a balloon behind the roommate's head after every time he makes popcorn. Before long, the smell of popcorn makes the roommate nervous. Which part of the story corresponds to each of the classical conditioning concepts?
CS - smell of popcorn
UCS - loud sound
CR - alarm at PRESENCE OF POPCORN (not at loud sound!)
UCR - alarm at loud sound
What is the difference between automatic and controlled (effortful) processing?
Automatic - gained without effort
Controlled - active memorization - actively work to gain information
What is encoding?
Process of putting new information into memory
What are ways in which we encode information? Which is weakest? Which is strongest?
What is the self-reference effect?
Visualize (visual), store the sound (acoustic), put it into a meaningful context (semantic)
Strongest: semantic - and when we use our own lives as a context, it's called the self-reference effect
What is maintenance rehearsal?
Repetition of a piece of info to keep it in memory
What is the method of loci?
Associate items in list with location along a route through a building
What is the peg-word system?
Associate numbers with items that rhyme with or resemble the numbers
What is chunking?
Memory trick that chunks pieces of information together into meaningful ways ex: grouping types of animals into cats, dogs, cattle etc
What is sensory memory, and what does it consist of?
Most transient form of memory storage. Iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) memory
What's the similarity and difference between sensory memory and short-term memory?
Similarity - fades quickly
Difference - short-term lasts 30 seconds while sensory under 1 second
What is working memory? When might I use it?
Requires integration of short-term memory, attention, and executive function. Needed to do simple math in head (I need to remember to carry over the 1, what's in the ten's place, etc)
How does information go from short-term to long-term memory?
Elaborative rehearsal - association of new information to knowledge already stored in long-term memory
What are the two types of long-term memory?
Implicit (nondeclarative or procedural): INP - skills and conditioned responses. Ex: brushing teeth or biking
Explicit (declarative): ED - require conscious recall. Ex: digestive enzyme name
What are the two types of explicit memory?
Episodic - experiences
Semantic - facts we know
What is the difference between recall and recognition?
Recognition - identifying information that was previously learned.
Recall - being asked to retrieve and state previously learned information.
I look at a photo of my graduating class and I can name people.
But if asked to list names, it would be harder.
Recall is harder
What is retrieval? What does it have to do with a semantic network?
Being able to show that you have retained information previously learned. Retrieval can use nodes of interconnected information
What is the spacing effect, and how will it help me study for an exam?
The longer the amount of time between sessions of relearning, the better the retention of information later on
What does spreading activation do to a semantic network's nodes?
When one node of the semantic network is activated, the other linked concepts around it are also unconsciously activated.
What are context effects?
Memory is aided by being in the same physical location where encoding took place. Ex: People do better on exam if they take it in the same room where they learned the info
Person's mental state affects recall. If I am drunk when I learn something, I will recall the facts better when drunk than when sober
Serial position effect
Retrieval cue when learning lists - remembering the first and last items best - primacy and recency. When asked later, often people remember the first few items best - longer time to encode
What is sundowning in Alzheimer's disease?
Increase in dysfunction in late afternoon and evening
What causes Korsakoff's syndrome?
Thiamine deficiency in brain
Symptoms of Korsakoff's syndrome?
Retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia, confabulation (vivid but fabricated memories), aphasia (difficulty communicating)
Loss of ability to recognize objects, people, or sounds. Usually caused by physical damage to brain
How are memories lost over time?
Neurochemical trace fades.
Interference: existence of other (usually similar) info
Proactive interference: old info interferes with new. Ex: learn Spanish hard because of Italian in middle school.
Retroactive interference: new info causes forgetting of old info. Spanish made me forget Italian
Remembering to perform a task at some point in the future
What kinds of memory are least susceptible to loss during aging? Most susceptible?
Recognition or skill-based memory, semantically meaningful material. Prospective memory that is event-based (triggering event like seeing grocery store).
Most: Time-based prospective (need to take med at 7am)
What is the misinformation effect?
When people are presented with false information, they tend to remember the false information
What is source amnesia?
Person remembers details of event but confuses the context under which those details were gained.
Strengthening memory connections through increased neurotransmitter release and receptor density. Same presynaptic stimulation leads to stronger postsynaptic response.
A credit card company charges a fee for a late payment. This is an example of:
A. pos reinforcement
B. neg reinforcement
C. pos punishment
D. neg punishment
A rat is trained to press a lever to obtain food under a fixed-interval schedule. Which of the following behaviors would the rat most likely exhibit?
A. Press lever continuously when hungry
B. Press lever exactly once and wait for food pellet before pressing again
C. Press lever slowly at first, with increasing frequency as the end of interval approaches
D. None of the above; the association formed by fixed-interval schedules is too weak to increase behavior
Fixed-ratio and fixed-interval: animal learns to predict when its next reward will be, and does more of the behavior at that point
Which of the following is true of controlled processing?
A. It is the means through which information enters short-term memory
B. Information that requires controlled processing cannot become automatic
C. It always requires active attention to the information being encoded
D. Most information we can later recall is encoded using controlled processing
Which of the following is an example of a circumstance that could cause a state-dependent recall effect?
I. Individual is underwater
II. Individual is intoxicated
III. Individual is manic
A. I only
B. III only
C. II and III only
D. I, II, and III
State-dependent concerned with internal, not external states of individual
What type of memory loss is most common in the first stage of Alzheimer's disease?
Short-term memory loss
Which of the following encoding strategies would be most useful in enhancing long-term memory?
A. Rote rehearsal alone
B. Rote rehearsal and mnemonic devices
C. Chunking and self-referencing
D. Self-referencing and mnemonic devices
Extreme negative experiences have what effect on memory?
Tend to want to forget - not strongly remembered
What kind of memory is a habit?
A Procedural memory
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