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APUSH Chapter 21 Terms
Terms in this set (32)
Dramatic expansion in the number of Americans engaged in administrative and professional tasks. Members of the new middle class were building organizations and establishing standards to secure their position in society. As one of their principal vehicles, they created the modern, organized professions.
The American Medical Association, a national professional society. Called for strict, scientific standards for admission to the practice of medicine, with doctors themselves serving as protectors of the standards. State and local governments responded by creating medical schools and by passing new laws that required licensing of all physicians.
By 1916, lawyers in all forty-eight states had established professional bar association, virtually all of which had succeeded in creating central examining boards, composed of lawyers, to regulate admission into the profession.
Purposes of professionalism
Guarding entry into the professions. The admission requirements also protected those already in the professions from excessive competition and lent prestige and status to the professional label.
Women and the Professions
American women were excluded from most of the emerging professions, but a substantial number of middle-class women, particularly those who graduated from women's colleges, nevertheless entered professional careers. The most important was teaching. For educated black women, often teaching was the only professional opportunity they could hope to find. Women also dominated nursing. Women's careers (nursing, teaching, and library work) were "helping professions". Proliferating the feminine and domestic image of women that conformed to their proper role in society.
The "New Woman"
By the end of the nineteenth century, almost all income producing activity had moved out of the home and into the factory or office. At the same time, many women were having fewer children, and their children were spending more time at school. Home and family became less time consuming, and therefore women began looking for activities outside the home.
Women's clubs began largely as cultural organizations to provide middle- and upper-class women with an outlet for their energies. In 1892, women formed the General Federation of Women's Clubs to coordinate the activities of local organizations. By the early twentieth century, the clubs were becoming more concerned with making a contribution to social reform. Many women's clubs supported controversial measures: child labor laws, worker compensation, pure food and drug legislation, occupational safety, reforms in Indian policy, and women's suffrage. Black women occasionally joined clubs dominated by whites, but they also formed clubs of their own and took on issues of particular concern to blacks.
Largest single reform movement in the progressive era. Attracted support of both men and women. A powerful antisuffrage movement also emerged. They associated suffrage with divorce, promiscuity, and neglect of children. The suffrage movement began to overcome this opposition to win some substantial victories, in part because suffragists became more organized and also more politically sophisticated than their opponents. Powerful leaders also began to justify suffrage in less threatening ways, arguing that it would not challenge the "separate sphere" on which women resided, but allow women to bring separate virtues more widely to bear on society's problems.
Guaranteed political rights to women throughout the nation.
National American Woman Suffrage Association; founded in 1890 to help women win the right to vote.
The assault on the parties
Many progressives believed that such reforms should start with an assault on the domination of government and politics by the political parties, which they thought had become corrupt, undemocratic and reactionary.
Independent Republicans who attempted to challenge the grip of partisanship, and former mugwumps became important supporters of progressive political reform activity in the 1890s and later.
Most states adopted the new ballot. Printed by the government and distributed at the polls, where it was filled out and deposited in secret. Helped chip away the power of the parties over voters.
Looked with particular disdain upon state legislatures who they believed were corrupt, and almost entirely controlled by party bosses.
Allowed reformers to circumvent state legislatures all together by submitting new legislation directly to the voters in general elections.
Provided a method by which actions of the legislature could be returned to the electorate for approval.
An attempt to take the selection of candidates away from the bosses and give it to the people.
Gave voters the right to remove a public official from office through special election.
Robert M. LaFollette
Most celebrated state-level reformer. Elected governor in 1900, helped turn his state into a "laboratory of progressivism". Won approval for direct primaries, initiatives, and referendums. They regulated railroads and utilities. They passed laws to regulate the workplace and provide workmen's comp. They taxed inherited fortunes, railroads, and corporate interests.
Professional organizations, trade associations representing particular businesses and industries, labor organizations, farm lobbies. and many others. Competes with political parties. These individual interests organized to influence government directly rather than operating thru party structures.
Sources of Progressivism Reforms
Middle-class reformers dominated the public image, but working-class Americans, African Americans, westerners, even party bosses also played crucial roles in advancing some of the important reforms of the era.
Many of the important issues to the future of the West required action above the state level. Because so much authority in the region rested on federal government, political parties in most of the West were relatively weak. This is why western states could move so quickly and decisively to embrace reforms such as initiative, referendum, recall, and direct primaries.
African-Americans and Reform
Question of race received serious attention from relatively few white progressives. Many African Americans embraced the idea to work for immediate self-improvement rather than long-range social change. W.E.B. DuBois introduced a new idea, advocating that talented blacks should accept nothing less than a full university education.
IN 1905, DuBois and his supporters met at Niagara Falls and launched movement to fight for immediate progress on civil rights.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Led the drive for equal rights, using as its principal weapon lawsuits in federal courts.
Many progressives considered the elimination of alcohol from American life a necessary step in restoring order society. Women in particular hoped that temperance would reform abusive of irresponsible male behavior and thus improve women's lives.
1873. Women's Christian Temperance Union, led by Frances Willard. By 1911, 250,000 members, single largest women's organization in American history.
1893. Joined the temperance movement and began to press for a specific legislative solution and legal abolition of saloons. Gradually, this demand grew to include the complete prohibition of the sale and manufacture of alcoholic beverages.
All reformers agreed that growing immigrant populations had created social problems, but there was disagreements on how to respond. Some wanted to help with assimilations, while others wanted to limit new arrivals. The arguments for restriction gained strength after the "science" of eugenics spread the belief that human inequalities were hereditary and that immigration was contributing to the multiplication of the unfit.
Virtually all socialists agreed on the need for basic structural changes in the economy, but to differing degrees. Some endorsed radical goals of the European Marxists, while others envisioned more moderate reform.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader and perennial presidential candidate of the Socialist Party of America, received nearly 1 million ballots in 1912. Strongest in urban immigrant communities (particularly among Jews and Germans), but attracted a substantial number of Protestant farmers in South and Midwest. Socialists won election to over 1000 states and local offices.
Decentralization and Regulation
Many reformers agreed that the greatest three to the nations economy was the excessive centralization of power. Rather than nationalize basic industries, they hoped to restore the economy to a more human scale. Wanted government to break up the largest combinations. Other progressives thought efficiency was more important than competition, and wanted the government to guard against abuses of power in "bad trusts".
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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APUSH Chapter 19 Terms Part 1
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