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Lower Limb Anatomy-Test 1 Bones

5 Categories of bones in the foot

1. Tarsals (7)
2. Metatarsals (5)
3. Phalanges (14)
4. Sesamoids
5. Accessory bones

Tarsals of the proximal row?

Tarsals located distally?

What is located between these 2 rows?

Calcaneus & Talus

Cuboid & 3 cuneiform bones (medial, intermediate, and lateral)


Strongest & largest bone of foot?


Calcaneus shape?

Rectangular -elongated in anterior-posterior direction

Dorsal surface of Calcaneus:

shapes? (front-back and side-side)
3 portions of dorsal surface?

Dorsal: concave (front-back) convex (side-side)

Dorsal surface: anterior, middle & posterior portions (each ~ 1/3 length)

Anterior 1/3 of (dorsal) Calcaneus has (#) of facets, that articulate w/ what?
Middle facet of dorsal surface of calcaneus is supported by?
Deep depression on anterior part of dorsal surface of calcaneus?

2 facets (anterior & middle), articulate w/ talus

sustentaculum tali

Calcaneal sulcus (between middle & posterior facets)

Calcaneal sulcus combines w/ deep groove on planter surface of talus to form? (2)

Tarsal sinus & tarsal canal

Tarsal canal lies (medial/lateral) to tarsal sinus
What ligament lies w/in tarsal canal?

MEDIAL (they are continuous)

Interosseous talocalcaneal ligament

(7) structures attached to the Tarsal Sinus

1. Extensor digitorum brevis
2. Inferior extensor retinaculum
3. Inferior peroneal retinaculum
4. Cervical ligament
5. Bifurcate ligament
6. Dorsal calcaneocuboid ligament
7. Lateral calcaneocuboid ligament (sometimes absent)

Middle 1/3 of (dorsal) Calcaneus contains (#) facets? Shape of facet?

one (posterior)

oval shaped & largest of 3 facets on dorsal surface

Describe posterior 1/3 of (dorsal) Calcaneus

Smooth nonarticular area & numerous vascular foramina

(2) ligaments attach at posterior 1/3 of Dorsal calcaneus

1. Posterior talocalcaneal ligament
2. Fibulocalcaneal ligament

PLANTAR surface of calcaneus is ____ side-side? Somewhat ____ shape?
What is posterior limit of plantar side?

Convex; triangular

Calcaneal tuberosity

Calcaneal tuberosity -Depressed in middle & prolonged into lateral & medial process on each side.
(2) things attach to depression?

1. Long plantar ligament
2. Abductor digiti quinti

Lateral process of calcaneous is small but prominent
(4) structures that attach to lateral process (posterolateral tubercle)?

1. Abductor digiti quinti
2. Lateral head of quadratus plantae
3. Long plantar ligament
4. Plantar aponeurosis

Medial process (posteromedial tubercle) is broader & larger
(7) structures that attach to medial process?

1. Abductor hallucis
2. Medial head of quadratus plantae
3. Long plantar ligament
4. Plantar aponeurosis
5. Flexor retinaculum
6. Flexor digitorum brevis
7. Abductor digiti quinti

Anterior tubercle of calcaneus (anterior border of plantar surface) for what ligament?

Plantar calcaneocuboid ligament (short plantar ligament)

Describe the ANTERIOR surface of Calcaneus
Ligament attaches to medial margin?

Smallest surface

One trigangular facet (articulates w/ cuboid); is convex transversely & concave vertically --> saddle-shaped

Plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament

POSTERIOR surface of Calcaneus forms?
(3) areas? Separated by?

Prominence of the heel

Superior, middle & inferior

separated by (2) horizontal lines - superior & inferior

Superior area of posterior surface of Calcaneus is (rough/smooth)

Covered by? that lies deep to?


a bursa that lies deep to tendo calcaneus

Middle area of posterior surface-roughened area for attachement of (2)?

1. tendo calcaneus
2. plantaris
Plantaris attaches medial to tendo calcaneus (sometimes together)

Inferior area of posterior surface is? Covered by?


by fatty, fibrous tissue

LATERAL surface
Posterior or anterior broader?

(#) of tubercles?


One, 2, or 3 tubercles

Most constant feature of lateral surface?

Where does this lie?

Retrotrochlear eminence

Directly behind (posterior) to peroneal trochela (tuberosity)

Retrotrochlear eminence is due to?

Is located in ____ third of lateral surface.

bony trabeculae w/in calcaneus that fan out from articular surfaces.


_____ _____ is ridge of bone that is formed by groove for tendon of peroneus longus.

It lies _____ to retrotrochlear eminence.

Groove for tendon of peroneus longus lies ___ & ____ to it.

Deep fibers of the inferior ____ _____ attach to it.

Peroneal trochlea (present ~33%)


inferior & posterior

peroneal retinaculum

Rarely, a 2nd groove related to peroneal trochlea is located where?
formed by ___ ___ tendon?

Superior (somewhat anterior) to peroneal trochlea

Tendon of peroneus brevis

3rd tubercle (in addition to retrotrochlear eminence & peroneal trochlea)
Located ___ & ___ to retrotrochlear eminece & serves for attachment of ____ ligament?

Posterior & superior

attachement of calcaneofibular ligament (present ~40-50%) -ligament is constant

The ___ _____ ligament attaches just ____ & ____ to calcaneofibular ligament, which partially overlies it

Lateral talocalcaneal ligament
anterior & superior

MEDIAL surface of calcaneus is?
Medial head of ____ ___ attaches to medial surface.

Deeply concave -plantar nerves & vessels located w/in hollow

Medial head of the quadratus plantae (attachment is more extensive than its attachment to medial process (plantar)

The ___ ___ is shelf-like projeciton from medial surface of calcaneus.
Its superior surface articulates w/?
Its inferior surface is grooved by what tendon?

Sustentaculum tali


tendon of flexor hallucis longus

(4) Structures attached to sustentaculum tali?

1. Tibiocalcaneal ligament (part of deltoid ligament)
2. medial talocalcaneal ligament
3. recurrent band of tibialis posterior (partial insertion)
4. plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament

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