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Lower Limb Anatomy-Test 1

Talus articulates w/ (2) at ankle joint?
Composed of 3 portions?
(#) muscles/tendons attach to talus?

Tibia & fibula

Body, neck & head


Shape of body of talus?
What surface of the body of the talus blends w/ the neck?

Somewhat cubical

Anterior surface of body

Superior surface of body of talus is ?
It's (convex/concave) from anterior to posterior.

Trochlea (shaped like pulley)


(5) Trochlea articulates w/

1. tibial plafond (inferior surface of tibia)
2. medial malleolus (of tibia)
3. lateral malleolus (of fibula)
4. anterior (inferior) tibiofibular ligament
5. inferior transverse ligament (which is deep portion of posterior/inferior tibiofibular ligament)

Inferior surface of body of talus
Articulates w/?

Large oval

concave facet

Calcaneus at subtalar joint (facet is posterior articular facet)

The ___ __, a deep groove, is located at the union of the body & neck of the talus.

Sulcus tali

MEDIAL surface of body of talus is continuous w/ ____.

Superiorly, this surface has a ____-shaped facet for articulation with the ____ ____.

Inferior to the facet, the medial surface is (rough/smooth) where ___ ____ ligament is attached.

There are many vascular foramina (inferior/superior) to the comma-shaped facet.


Comma; medial malleolus

Rough; anterior tibiotalar ligament (part of deltoid ligament)


LATERAL surface of body of talus has ___ shape, w/ (base/apex) pointing inferiorly.
Inferior, tapered end of lateral surface is known as?

This surface has large ___ facet for ____ ____.

Rough areas found anterior & posterior to articular facet for attachment of?

Usually (2) tubercles for the ____ ___ ligament and a groove for the ___ ___ ligament.

The ___ ___ ligament attaches anteroinferior to the lateral malleolar surface.

Superiorly, the base of the triangular facet is continuous w/ ?

Triangular shape; apex

Lateral process

triangular facet; lateral malleolus.

anterior talofibular & posterior talofibular ligaments

anterior talofibular & posterior talofibular

lateral talocalcaneal ligament


POSTERIOR surface of talus (AKA posterior process) is a ledge of bone that projects ____ & ___.

Posterior process is grooved by tendon of __ ___ ___.

Posteriorly & inferiorly

Flexor hallucis longus (which divides posterior process into 2 tubercles-medial & lateral)

(2) ligaments attach to the medial tubercle of posterior process of the talus?

1. Medial talocalcaneal ligament
2. Posterior tibiotalar ligament (part of deltoid ligament)
(at times, posterior talocalcaneal ligament has medial band that also attaches)

(3) attach to lateral tubercle of posterior process of the talus? (lateral tubercle is larger than medial)

1. Posterior talofibular ligament
2. Posterior talocalcaneal ligament
3. Fibulotalocalcaneal ligament

The ___ tubercle of posterior process has its own secondary ossification center.

When ossificaiton center fails to fuse w/ rest of talus, the lateral tubercle becomes an ___ bone.


accessory bone

os trigonum

The neck of the talus is most easily seen on ___ & ____ surfaces.

On the medial & inferior surfaces the neck is represented by a deep groove, called what?

lateral & superior

Sulcus tali

Groove of the talus (sulcus tali) & groove on calcaneus (calcaneal sulcus) form a bony canal--giving rise to?

Tarsal sinus & tarsal canal

The tarsal canal contains the ___ ___ ligament.

interosseous talocalcaneal

the (dorsal) ____ ligament is attached to the superior surface of the neck of the talus.

(dorsal) talonavicular ligament

The head of the talus is (anteriorly/posteriorly), (laterally/medially) & slightly (inferiorly/superiorly).

2 major surfaces of head of the talus.

The ___ surface of head blends w/ neck of talus.

anteriorly, medially & inferiorly

anterior & inferior


Anterior surface of head of the talus has facet. Describe. Articulates w/?

Large ovoid, convex facet

articulation w/ navicular

Inferior surface of head of talus has (#) facets.
They articulate w/?


2 facets articulate w/ calcaneus & third facet articulates w/ plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament

Location & articulations of facets:
-anterior calcaneal facet & middle calcaneal facet

-inferior surface

-anterior & middle-on inferior surface of head of talus; articulate w/ anterior talar facet & middle talar facet on superior surface of calcaneus

-inferor surface of head of talus has facet that rest on spring ligament.

The ____ portion of spring ligament contains fibrocartilage upon which the head of the talus rest.


superior surface is directed ?
inferior surface is directed ?


Superior (dorsal) surface of cuboid is rough due to attachment of (6) ligaments:

1. dorsal calcaneocuboid
2. dorsal cuneocuboid
3. dorsal cuboideonavicular
4. (2) dorsal cuboideometatarsals (one ligament to 4th met other to 5th met)
5. lateral calcaneocuboid (variable)

Beak or ___ ___ of cuboid is located on ___ surface, where medial & posterior borders meet.

Coronoid process; plantar

The plantar surface of cuboid exhibits a ___ ___ (groove) & a ___ ____.
Both course obliquely from postero___ to antero___.

peroneal sulcus & peroneal ridge

posterolateral to anteromedial

The peroneal sulcus lies (proximal/distal) to peroneal ridge.

sulcus distal to ridge

What tendon lies either in peroneal groove or against anterior aspect of peroneal ridge?

tendon of peroneus longus

Deep fibers of ___ __ ligament attach to peroneal ridge.
Superficial fibers of ___ ___ ligament course over tendon of ___ ___.
Long plantar ligament & cuboid form an osseofibrous canal for what tendon?

long plantar ligament

long plantar ligament; tendon of peroneus longus

peroneus longus

(8) structures attached to plantar surface of cuboid

1. Long plantar ligament
2. Short plantar ligament
3. Plantar cuboideonavicular ligament
4. Tibialis posterior
5. Flexor hallucis brevis
6. Plantar cuneocuboid ligament
7. (2) Plantar cuboideometatarsal ligaments (4th and 5th)

Peroneal ridge terminates laterally as the ___ ___.
There is a sesamoid bone? In what tendon?

cuboid tuberosity

oval facet which there is sesamoid bone

Os perineum, in tendon of peroneus longus

Smallest surface of cuboid?
____ notch is located at plantar edge of lateral surface.
Which marks the beginning of ___ ___.

lateral (more of a border)

Peroneal notch

peroneal sulcus

Shape of medial surface of cuboid?

Facet? shape? Articulation w/?

Extra facet?


triangular facet for lateral cuneiform at dorsal, middle portion.

can be same facet for navicular

(3) ligaments attach to medial surface of cuboid

1. Interosseous cuboideonavicular
2. Interosseous cuneocuboid
3. Calcaneocuboid portion of the bifurcated ligament

Posterior surface of cuboid:
shaped (transversley and vertically)?

triangular facet for calcaneus; saddle-shaped-is concave-convex

transversely-concave; vertically-convex

Anterior surface of cuboid has vertical ridge to separate 2 facets.

Medial facet-shape & articulate w/?

Lateral facet-shape & articulate w/?

Medial facet- quadrilateral; articulate w/ base of 4th met

Lateral facet- triangular w/ apex laterally; articulate w/ 5th met

Boat shaped. ___ proximally & ___ distally.
Articulates w/?

Concave (prox) & convex (distal)

talus & 3 cuneiforms (sometimes cuboid/ rare calcaneus)

Dorsal surface of navicular is _____ & oriented supero____.
(7) attachments.

convex; superomedially

1. (3) Dorsal cuneonaviculars (one to each cuneiform)
2. Dorsal cuboideonavicular
3. Dorsal talonavicular
4. Calcaneonavicular portion of the bifurcated ligament
5. Tibionavicular portion of the deltoid ligament

Plantar surface of navicular is continuous medially w/?
A groove for tendon of ___ ___ separates navicular tuberosity from plantar surface.
Near middle of plantar surface, there is tubercle for attachment of the ____ ligament.

Navicular tuberosity.

tendon of tibialis posterior (groove for continuation beyond its attachment to the tuberosity)

Spring ligament

(5) Ligaments attached to plantar surface of navicular

1. Spring ligament (plantar calcaneonavicular)
2. Plantar cuboideonavicular
3. (3) Plantar cuneonavicular ligaments (one to each cuneiform)

____ surface of navicular is very narrow (more like an edge)


Lateral calcaneonavicular portion of bifurcated ligament is attached to what (2) surfaces of the navicular?

Lateral and dorsal

What else attaches to the lateral surface of the navicular?

interosseous cuboideonavicular ligament

Does the medial surface of the navicular have a tuberosity? If so, what attaches here?

tibialis posterior

Tuberosity develops from?

Secondary ossificaiton center

Result if ossificaiton center does not unite w/ rest of navicular?

accessory bone, Os tibiale (externum)

___ ___ ligament attaches medial cuneiform to medial surface of navicular.

Medial cuneonavicular ligament

Anterior surface of navicular is ___ from side to side.

Anterior facet is divided into (#)?

Which is largest facet? Shape?

Shapes of other facets?




medial; pear-shaped/triangular/quadrilateral

middle (intermediate) & lateral facets are both triangular

articulate with appropriate cuneiform bones

Posterior surface of navicular is ____.

Facets? Articulations?


large, oval/tear-shaped facet

articulates w/ head of talus

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