Where does most of our knowledge of African societies come from?
outside traders and merchants
What traveler is known for his recorded descriptions of African societies?
a special class of African storytellers who keep a people's history alive
mild climate zone
moderate rainfall, warm temperatures, fertile land that can support crops and large population
makes up 40% of continent; Sahara (north) and Kalahari (south)
along equator, heavy rains, warm temperatures, dense forests
unreliable rain, but enough for farming and herding
What are the four climate zones?
mild, desert, rain forest, savanna
What obstacles do the climate zones create?
humans can't grow food in desert, hard to travel in rain forest
What allowed Ghana to become a wealthy state?
abundance of gold made it the center of a huge trade empire
Who benefited from Ghana's wealthy state?
the Berbers and Ghananians traded gold and salt and interacted peacefully even though they had different religions and customs
What led to the collapse of the Songhai empire?
after the reign of Askia Dawud, there was a period of slow decline that quickened when the forces of the sultan of Morocco occupied it
What happened as a result of the spread of Islam?
Muslim merchants settles along the coast and formed a string of trade port cities, brought education centers to Africa, established learning centers in Cairo and Timbuktu
How did the Olmec influence the Aztec and Maya?
step pyramids, astronomy, architecture
What mathematical advances did the Maya and Aztec make?
numeral systems based on units of 20 that included 0
What astronomical advances did the Inca create?
two calendars based on the path of the sun
What architecture did the Mayans and Aztec have?
pyramids with temples dedicated to the gods, traditional step designs, and altars dedicated to the gods
What architecture did the Inca have?
stones tightly packed with mortar were earthquake proof
What were the governments of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca?
monarch with independent city states
How were the religions of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca similar?
fundamentally shaped each culture, numerous temples, frequent and often violent rituals, human sacrifice was common
What was the Triple Alliance?
between Aztec, Tetzcoco, and Tlacopan; allowed Aztec to dominate an empire that included much of today's Mexico
In the 14th century, Zimbabwe prospered as a result of its:
gold trade with Swahili traders
The people of Ghana prospered largely because of their:
A matrilineal society is one in which:
descent is traced through an individual's mother
A common belief was than a _____ had the power to foretell events.
In an African society, a griot was always a:
Much of our knowledge of early African society comes from accounts written by:
Within a lineage group, a great deal of power was held by:
Traders spread _____ to the area south of the Sahara.
the Islamic religion
An important purpose of African dance was to:
communicate with spirits
How did trade contribute to the growth and prosperity of early African states and societies?
Trade brought the early African kingdoms great wealth and power. Ivory and other valuable goods were not the only things shared between societies. Trade also allowed for the spread of culture, religion, language, and ideas.