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US History Study Guide Jan 2012-3

John Locke

An Enlightenment thinker from UK. Believed people deserved natural rights of Life, liberty, and property. If a government doesn't give these rights, the people are able to leave the government Important because it gave ideas to many colonists when they were trying to break from UK.

Common Sense

-Written by Thomas Paine

Sons of Liberty

-A group of men who were opposed to British taxes.

Declaration of Independence

-written on July 2, 1776

Boston Tea Party

1773 patriots revolted by throwing tea into the harbor in response to a harsh tax on Dutch Tea. The tax was an attempt by the British to sell their tea to the colonists.

First continental Congress

held in Philadelphia in 1774. Every colony but Georgia met, and the idea of being an American was first created. Created a boycott on British goods across the colonies in an attempt to remove the intolerable acts.

Second Continental Congress

Philadelphia in 1775. Congress assumed responsibility for the war with Britain. The continental Army was set up and was led by George Washington.

Articles of Confederation

Drafted in 1777 by the Continental Congress. Design for the Gov't was a loosely constructed 13 states not a strong central Gov't. In this Gov't each state had one vote. No president. Congress had no power to tax. To amend articles you needed all 13 states to vote yes.

Constitutional Convention

1787. A convention in the Pennsylvania State House where the Articles on Confederation were supposed to be revised. Instead they were thrown out and a new constitution was drafted

Bill of Rights

First ten amendments of the constitution. Written by James Madison.

Shays Rebellion

Led by Daniel Shays, 1787. He led 1000 farmers to seize the Springfield Armory and shut down the courts.

Alexander Hamilton

Convinced one fed. in House of reps. not to vote for Burr

Francus Scott Key

Wrote National Anthem

25.Jefferson Drafted what famous document? ___________ of ____________.

Declaration of Independence


group of people who settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the government of their native land


travel all the way around the world

Columbian Exchange

global exchange of goods and ideas between the peoples of the western and eastern hemispheres


name for the Spanish explorers who claimed land in the Americas for Spain

Northwest Passage

a natural waterway through or around North America


the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people

Boston Massacre, 1770

British troops opened fire on protestors killing 5

Boston Tea Party, 1773

colonists dump tea into Boston harbor


a legal document; granted land and right ot start a colony


Roman general who became a model of civic virtue by leading his country to military victory and then refusing to become its dictator.

civic virtue

The dedication of citizens to the common welfare of their community or country, even at the cost of their individual interests.

common good

The good of the whole community.

common law

the body of unwritten law developed in England from judicial decisions based on custom and earlier judicial decisions


To agree and accept something, approve of something, or allow something to take place.


A legal framework for government.

constitutional government

A government in which there are limits on the powers of the person or group running the government.


(noun) Person chosen to act for or represent others. (verb) To entrust someone to represent your interests.


A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.


carrying our formal relations between governments

direct democracy

A government in which the people themselves meet and make laws.

English Bill of Rights

an act passed by Parliament in 1689 that limited the power of the monarch


A group that seeks to promote its own special interests at the expense of the common good.


a system of social, economic, and political organization in which a politically weak king or queen shared power with the nobility

First Continental Congress

start of unified American government


The political leaders of the American colonies.


The people and institutions with authority to make and enforce the laws and manage disputes about the law.

James Madison

"the Father of the Constitution,"

John Locke

English philosopher of natural rights.

King George III

Ruler of Great Britain and the British colonies in North America in the 1770's.


colonists remaining loyal to the king

Magna Carta

document of 1215 granting certain civil rights & liberties to the nobility; King John was forced to sign it in 1215


the British legislature; consists of House of Lords & House of Commons


colonists who supported the Revolution

Proclamation of 1763

banned settlement on certain western lands

purpose of government

To protect those natural rights that the individual cannot effectively protect in a state of nature.


A national government in which power is held by the people who elect representatives to manage the government for the sake of the common good.

republican government

A government in which citizens govern through elected leaders whom they delegate to serve their interests and the common good.

Second Continental Congress

organized the Continental Army, Declared Independence


Able to provide for one's own needs.


peasants who were not free to leave the land which they worked

social contract

An agreement among the people to set up a government and obey its laws.

Sons of Liberty

organized resistance to the Stamp Act throughout the country

Stamp Act, 1765

tax on every legal document, newspaper, deck of cards


Under the rule of a a government or person.


betrayal of one's country

Treaty of Paris

official agreement ending the Revolutionary War

unalienable rights

rights that cannot be taken away

What was the first national constitution called?

Artices of Confederation

Why did the delegates decide that the national government ahould not be very strong?

Because they did not want a monarchy.

Under the Articles of Confederation, what was stronger, liberty or order?


What was the problem with the "love of liberty"?

The states were getting too much liberty and the centural government had not power.

How were the Articles of Confederation influenced b the Iroquois League?

The 5 tribes joined together and make 1 central government.

Why did the delagates reject direct Democracy in favor of a Republic?

They didn't think that ordinary people were capable orrunning their own government?

What was Shay's rebellion?

When a bunch of farmers rebellion because they were left in debt and their arms were being taken away.

What were the consequences of Shay's rebellion?

I didn't get this one...can one of you guys answer it???

What happened in the summer of 1786?

The new constitution was created

What are the three basic purposes of government?

1. Protection

Presidential Government

Has a president


-Ruled by 1


-Ruled by few


-Ruled by the people

The Virginia Plan;

1. Legislature: Two houses (Bicameral) The House of Representatives was elected by the people; Senate elected by the State legislature.

June 15, 1787 by William Paterson

1. Legislature: One House (unicameral)

Three-Fifths Population

Every 5 slaves count as 3 people.

Who were federalists?

People who supported the constitution

Who were anti-federalists?

Believed in order over too much liberty

What are the five basic principles included in the constitution?

1). Popular Sovereighty

Popular Sovereighty

Means the people rule

Seperation of Powers

3 seperate branches so that power is different but shared.

Checks and Balences

A system where no one person of group would be likley to take over the whole government.

Limited the Government

A system that guarentees that the govenment does not hold all the power and only does the things the people allow it to do.


Spreads and splits the power between national and state government


To confirm

Legislature Actions

Cngress has interperated the constitutions meaning.

Executive Actions

The manor in which the president carries out his duties has shaped our interperation of the constitution.

Judicial Interperations

Hve been most influencial in interperation the constitution

2 examples of reserved powers:

-Regulating trade within a state

Concurrent Powers

Powers held by national and state government

2 examples of concurent power:

-Collecting Taxes

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