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Final Exam 2013 US History

US History Study Guide Jan 2012-3
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John Locke
An Enlightenment thinker from UK. Believed people deserved natural rights of Life, liberty, and property. If a government doesn't give these rights, the people are able to leave the government Important because it gave ideas to many colonists when they were trying to break from UK.
Common Sense
-Written by Thomas Paine
Sons of Liberty
-A group of men who were opposed to British taxes.
Declaration of Independence
-written on July 2, 1776
Boston Tea Party
1773 patriots revolted by throwing tea into the harbor in response to a harsh tax on Dutch Tea. The tax was an attempt by the British to sell their tea to the colonists.
First continental Congress
held in Philadelphia in 1774. Every colony but Georgia met, and the idea of being an American was first created. Created a boycott on British goods across the colonies in an attempt to remove the intolerable acts.
Second Continental Congress
Philadelphia in 1775. Congress assumed responsibility for the war with Britain. The continental Army was set up and was led by George Washington.
Articles of Confederation
Drafted in 1777 by the Continental Congress. Design for the Gov't was a loosely constructed 13 states not a strong central Gov't. In this Gov't each state had one vote. No president. Congress had no power to tax. To amend articles you needed all 13 states to vote yes.
Constitutional Convention
1787. A convention in the Pennsylvania State House where the Articles on Confederation were supposed to be revised. Instead they were thrown out and a new constitution was drafted
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments of the constitution. Written by James Madison.
Shays Rebellion
Led by Daniel Shays, 1787. He led 1000 farmers to seize the Springfield Armory and shut down the courts.
Alexander Hamilton
Convinced one fed. in House of reps. not to vote for Burr
Francus Scott Key
Wrote National Anthem
25.Jefferson Drafted what famous document? ___________ of ____________.
Declaration of Independence
colony
group of people who settle in a distant land but are still ruled by the government of their native land
circumnavigate
travel all the way around the world
Columbian Exchange
global exchange of goods and ideas between the peoples of the western and eastern hemispheres
conquistadors
name for the Spanish explorers who claimed land in the Americas for Spain
Northwest Passage
a natural waterway through or around North America
culture
the behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people
Boston Massacre, 1770
British troops opened fire on protestors killing 5
Boston Tea Party, 1773
colonists dump tea into Boston harbor
charter
a legal document; granted land and right ot start a colony
Cincinnatus
Roman general who became a model of civic virtue by leading his country to military victory and then refusing to become its dictator.
civic virtue
The dedication of citizens to the common welfare of their community or country, even at the cost of their individual interests.
common good
The good of the whole community.
common law
the body of unwritten law developed in England from judicial decisions based on custom and earlier judicial decisions
consent
To agree and accept something, approve of something, or allow something to take place.
constitution
A legal framework for government.
constitutional government
A government in which there are limits on the powers of the person or group running the government.
delegate
(noun) Person chosen to act for or represent others. (verb) To entrust someone to represent your interests.
dictatorship
A form of government in which the leader has absolute power and authority.
diplomacy
carrying our formal relations between governments
direct democracy
A government in which the people themselves meet and make laws.
English Bill of Rights
an act passed by Parliament in 1689 that limited the power of the monarch
factions
A group that seeks to promote its own special interests at the expense of the common good.
feudalism
a system of social, economic, and political organization in which a politically weak king or queen shared power with the nobility
First Continental Congress
start of unified American government
Founders
The political leaders of the American colonies.
government
The people and institutions with authority to make and enforce the laws and manage disputes about the law.
James Madison
"the Father of the Constitution,"
John Locke
English philosopher of natural rights.
King George III
Ruler of Great Britain and the British colonies in North America in the 1770's.
Loyalists
colonists remaining loyal to the king
Magna Carta
document of 1215 granting certain civil rights & liberties to the nobility; King John was forced to sign it in 1215
Parliament
the British legislature; consists of House of Lords & House of Commons
Patriots
colonists who supported the Revolution
Proclamation of 1763
banned settlement on certain western lands
purpose of government
To protect those natural rights that the individual cannot effectively protect in a state of nature.
republic
A national government in which power is held by the people who elect representatives to manage the government for the sake of the common good.
republican government
A government in which citizens govern through elected leaders whom they delegate to serve their interests and the common good.
Second Continental Congress
organized the Continental Army, Declared Independence
self-sufficient
Able to provide for one's own needs.
serfs
peasants who were not free to leave the land which they worked
social contract
An agreement among the people to set up a government and obey its laws.
Sons of Liberty
organized resistance to the Stamp Act throughout the country
Stamp Act, 1765
tax on every legal document, newspaper, deck of cards
subject
Under the rule of a a government or person.
treason
betrayal of one's country
Treaty of Paris
official agreement ending the Revolutionary War
unalienable rights
rights that cannot be taken away
What was the first national constitution called?
Artices of Confederation
Why did the delegates decide that the national government ahould not be very strong?
Because they did not want a monarchy.
Under the Articles of Confederation, what was stronger, liberty or order?
Liberty
What was the problem with the "love of liberty"?
The states were getting too much liberty and the centural government had not power.
How were the Articles of Confederation influenced b the Iroquois League?
The 5 tribes joined together and make 1 central government.
Why did the delagates reject direct Democracy in favor of a Republic?
They didn't think that ordinary people were capable orrunning their own government?
What was Shay's rebellion?
When a bunch of farmers rebellion because they were left in debt and their arms were being taken away.
What were the consequences of Shay's rebellion?
I didn't get this one...can one of you guys answer it???
What happened in the summer of 1786?
The new constitution was created
What are the three basic purposes of government?
1. Protection
Presidential Government
Has a president
Autocracy
-Ruled by 1
Oligarchy
-Ruled by few
Democracy
-Ruled by the people
The Virginia Plan;
1. Legislature: Two houses (Bicameral) The House of Representatives was elected by the people; Senate elected by the State legislature.
June 15, 1787 by William Paterson
1. Legislature: One House (unicameral)
Three-Fifths Population
Every 5 slaves count as 3 people.
Who were federalists?
People who supported the constitution
Who were anti-federalists?
Believed in order over too much liberty
What are the five basic principles included in the constitution?
1). Popular Sovereighty
Popular Sovereighty
Means the people rule
Seperation of Powers
3 seperate branches so that power is different but shared.
Checks and Balences
A system where no one person of group would be likley to take over the whole government.
Limited the Government
A system that guarentees that the govenment does not hold all the power and only does the things the people allow it to do.
Federalism
Spreads and splits the power between national and state government
Ratify
To confirm
Legislature Actions
Cngress has interperated the constitutions meaning.
Executive Actions
The manor in which the president carries out his duties has shaped our interperation of the constitution.
Judicial Interperations
Hve been most influencial in interperation the constitution
2 examples of reserved powers:
-Regulating trade within a state
Concurrent Powers
Powers held by national and state government
2 examples of concurent power:
-Collecting Taxes