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Chapter 1 - What is Criminology?
Criminology Today - Sixth Edition By Frank Schmalleger
Terms in this set (21)
Human conduct in violation of the criminal laws of the federal government, a state, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws.
To make illegal.
A formal written enactment of a legislative body.
Law in the form of statues or formal written strictures made by a legislature or governing body with the power to make law.
Human activity that violates social norms.
One who is trained in the field of criminology; also, one who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior.
A specialist in the collection and examination of the physical evidence of crime.
A government initiative, program, or plan intended to address problems in society. The "war on crime," for example, is a kind of generic (large-scale) social policy--one consisting of many smaller programs.
An interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control.
A behavioral predisposition that disproportionately favors criminal activity.
A way of acquiring valued resources from others by exploiting and deceiving them.
The scientific study of crime, the criminal law, and components of the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and corrections.
A series of interrelated propositions that attempts to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events. A theory gains explanatory power from inherent logical consistency and is "tested" by how well it describes and predicts reality.
A theory that attempts to explain all (or at least most) forms of criminal conduct through a single overarching approach.
Having one cause. Unicausal theories posit only one source for all that they attempt to explain.
An explanatory perspective that merges (or attempts to merge) concepts drawn from different sources.
Social Problems Perspective
The belief that crime is a manifestation of underlying social problems, such as poverty, discrimination, pervasive family violence, inadequate socialization practices, and the breakdown of traditional social institutions.
Social Responsibility Perspective
The belief that individuals are fundamentally responsible for their own behavior and that they choose crime over other, more law-abiding courses of action.
The notion that social events are differently interpreted according to the cultural experiences and personal interest of the initiator, the observer, or the recipient of that behavior.
Criminal Justice System
The various agencies of justice, especially the police, courts, and corrections, whose goal it is to apprehend, convict, punish, and rehabilitate law violators.
The lifelong process of social experience whereby individuals acquire the cultural patterns of their society.
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