137 terms

US History Exam Review Semester One

Chapter 6-7 define Melting Pot vs. Nativism
Melting pot was a blend of people from different racial backgrounds coexisting in the same country together. Nativisim is a bias toward natural-born Americans.
Chapter 6-7- Patronage
The giving of government jobs to others to help elect someone to office.
Transcontinential Railroad- Chapter 6-7
A railroad that streached from coast to coast in the US.
Ellis Island-Chapter 6-7
Stationed in New York, it was an immigration station for European immagrants that required a physical examination, an inspection of documents (passports). Immigrants also needed to have at least $ 25 on them and solomly swear they had never been convicted of felony in their homeland.
Angel Island
San Fransisco immigration station that mainly dealt with chinese immigrants. These immigrants went through abrasive questioning and often had to wait long periods of time before US admittance.
The movement and growth of cities in the US
Housing that was shared by more than one family.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
An act that stated that large buisness could not monopolize free trade.
The ownership of all compition within an industry.
Old Immigrants
Immigrants that came to the US from Ireland and England around 1830-1870 looking for religious freedom.
New Immigrants
Immigrants that came to the US during the time frame of 1870 through 1910. These immigrants were often from eastern Europe. These immigrants had no land to live on upon arriving in the US.
Produced by a method called the Bessemer process, the invention of Iron and steel created industries that boomed as the two products were often used as the framework for buildings.
Thomas Edison
Inventor of the light bulb that revolutionized many homes and buisnesses. He also created the very first research lab.
Alexander Graham Bell
Inventor of the telephone.
Andrew Carnegie
A big wig in the railroad industry. went from rags to riches as he got older and his rail company became stronger.
John Rockefeller
A true monopolizer, created a large corporation (Standard Oil) and had steady control of the oil industry.
William Vanderbilt
A railroad company owner that introduced the idea of consolidation.
George Pullman
A railroad car pioneer that made very famous railroad cars. Pullman also created a town in Ilinois that beared his namesake for workers of his railroad company. The Pullman town had a notoriety for creating very restricting rules for employees to follow after work hours.
Henry Bessemer
Inventor of the Bessemer process which turned iron into steel.
JP Morgan
A major banker/Robber Baron of his time. Monopolized Wall Street and steel industry.
Why Did Immigrants Come To The United States?
Many came to create a better lif for themselves in a new land and to escape the poverty of their homeland.
What policies did the Nativists want the government to pass?
What was the signfigance of Iron being turned to steel.
This was a signfigance as steel was used for the basis of buildings especially skyliners which were growing popular in metropolitan areas during this time period
What Were the biggest effects of urbanization?
The growth of US cities.
What were the biggest effects of the transcontinental railroad?
The ability to expand free trade to a wider audience.
Journalists who wrote about buisness corruption and reported it back to the people. (think Upton Sinclair.)
The banning of alcohol/ alcoholic beverages in the US
Progressive Movement
A movement whose main purpose was to restore government power back in the people's hands.
Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelts reform plan that decided on equal chances for the public and the rich. (No special treatment based on money or anything else)
Pure Food and Drug Act
A law enacted in 1906 that stated that companies may not sell fraudulently labeled or non-labeled products to the public.
The process of preserving some of the nations lands from man-made destruction.
The Jungle
A novel written in 1904 by muckraker Upton Sinclair that exposed corruption in the meatpacking industry.
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker; Author of the 1904 novel The Jungle.
William H. Taft
27th US president. He was a trustbuster that came after Theodore Roosevelt in the presidency. He was a Republican.
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president of the US. Created foodservice regulations, trustbuster, won nobel peace prize for Russo- Japanese war negotiation, creator of Square Deal, had Panama canal open during his presidency.
Woodrow Wilson
Theodore Roosevelts Succsessor he was a democrat, Clayton Anti Trust Act was the highlight of his presidency
W.E.B. Dubois
african american civil rights activist who advocated for more educational outside of the realm of career technical education for african americans
what was a significant impact of the progressive movement on American life
pushed for more social programs such as social security, unemployment compensation
What was the general purpose of progressive era laws under Theodore Roosevelt
general purpose was to let the people have more say within the government
What was the general objective of muckrakers
they were out there to expose corruption in american society
What was the main theme of Upton Sinclairs book The Jungle
the main theme was the corruption in the meat packing industry during the 1900's
How did Booker T Washington and WEB Dubois differ in opinions
Washington believed african americans would be better served by receiving educational skills that would lead to immediate employment such as agriculture, carpentry, stone masonry. Dubois believed that african americans would be better served if they had educational opportunities to serve the minds such as becoming lawyers
How did the passing of the Sherman Anti Trust Act attempt to reform US business practices
essentially the act attempted to ban monopolies in businesses
a stronger nation giving resources to weaker nations
yellow journalism
style of writing that featured over exaggerations of stories to play on readers emotions
open door policy
letters written to leaders of imperialist countries urging shared rights of trade with the US
rough riders
volunteer soldiers led under Teddy Roosevelt they were most successful at the battle of San Juan Hill
Panama Canal
US trade route across Central America which opened in 1914
dollar diplomacy
controlling of people within a country after federal money is lent to them
manifest destiny
idea that the US should be ruled from the Altantic to Pacific, contributing factor of westward expansion
USS Maine
american ship that was directed to Cuba to take US citizens back to US and protect US land the ship blew up near Havana Cuba on Feb 15 1898 over 260 men were killed
Square deal
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers
Theodore Roosevelt
first president to win the nobel peace prize he created an agreement to stop the fighting between the Russians and the Japanese in Russo Japanese war. This was called the treaty of Portsmouth, he was also a hero in the battle of San Juan hill
How did yellow journalism affect the spanish american war
yellow journalism affected the spanish american war as it over exaggerated things about the spanish thus playing on americans emotions
what were the main reasons for the spanish american war
it had to do with US imperialism, attach on the USS Maine and gave the US the opportunity to take over land that the spanish occupied
what were the effects of the square deal
better wages, resonable work hours, limits on child labor
triple alliance (allies)
an alliance system during WWI that was made up of England Russia and France
triple entente
alliance system that was made up of Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary
convoy system
large force of ships that allowed allied merchant ships to cross the Atlantic while destroying every ship in its path
League of Nations
a proposed organization spread out internationally that would give representatives of nations the opportunity to work out their problems without having to go to war (an early UN)
Treaty of Versailles
a treaty conceived by the allies that created nine new territories including Poland and Czechsolovikia
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
austria hungarys heir to the the throne. was assasinated along with his wife while visiting Bosnia
Woodrow Wilson
president during WWI he created a document called the 14 points act an attempt to create an agreement between Germany and other European nations
Gavrilo Princip
the assasin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand,
Keiser William II
germanys leader during WWI
Czar Nicholas II
Russias leader during WWI
what were the main causes of WWI
assisanation of Archduke Francis Ferndinand, Germanys high military power, US and European fear that Germany would take over the world
Why did American not get involved at the beginning of WWI
americans believed in a policy of isolationism which meant that they did not get involved in other countries affairs if they were not directly involved
Why did america finally get involved in WWI
had to do with the British ship called the Lucitania where it had killed 180 americans out of the 1198 people on the ship on May 7 1915
what were the major results of WWI for America
after the war US industry boomed more americans moved to cities but there was high unemployment and we went into a recession
what were the main differences between the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles
league of nations was open to any countries problems and would create a solution that would benefit that country. Treaty of Versailles was not open to any countries problems because it seemed to bar Germany to doing things in Europe
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
teapot dome scandal
scandal that happened during Warren Hardings presidency in which the nations two most important oil sources were sold unlawfully to the dept of interior and then they were sold to private companies who pocketed the profits off the oil reserves without Hardings consent
scopes monkey trial
1925, the trial that pitted the teaching of Darwin's theory of evolution against teaching Bible creationism
Young women in the 1920s who challenged social traditions with their dress and behavior
after hour clubs where alcohol was served
harlem renaissance
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Warren G Harding
president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI
Charles Lindbergh
an American aviator, engineer , and Pulitzer Prize winner. He was famous for flying solo across the Atlantic, paving the way for future aviational development.
Sacco and Vanzetti
were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
Calvin Coolidge
elected Vice President and succeeded as 30th President of the United States when Harding died in 1923 (1872-1933)
why were americans fearful of communism
because communists governments do not respect the natural rights of the people
what were the major results of prohibition
caused an underground boot legging operation
what were the major gains for women during this time period
in 1920 the women gained the right to vote
what were the major gains for african americans during this time period
WEB Dubois and others reformers founded the NAACP
great depression
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
social security act
guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
fireside chat
Radio speeches giving Americans hope during the depression; given by FDR
dust bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
In the 1930s these men roamed the country, hopped of freight cars, and went to wherever they could find a job. Sometimes they had to beg for food.
tennessee valley authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
new deal
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
Franklin D Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
Eleanor Roosevelt
wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)
Herbert Hoover
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
what were the major causes of the Great Depression
stock market crashed in 1929, dust bowl,
what were the most influential parts of the New Deal
FDIC, aid to states through the federal emergency relief association, works progress administration and the social security act
How did government change the most because of the Great Depression
govt became more socially active by creating programs with social safety nets to assist in the lives of the people government also became larger and more expensive
Shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; the name given to them shows that thte people blamed Hoover directly for the Depression.
bonus army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
stocks on margin
buying stocks without putting up the full value of the purchase
boxer rebellion
A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality
operation desert shield
(GB1) Bush place embargo on Iraq, put miltary in Saudi, West Europe and Arabs now against Iraq
operation desert storm
the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours (1991)
site of school shooting 1999
Islamic terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden. They are responsible for numerous terrorist attacks, including the destruction of the World Trade Center buildings in New York City.
a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
9/11 attacks
Arab terrorists hijacked 4 airliners, crashing into the twin towers, the Pentagon, and a failed site in Pennsylvania
Ronald Reagan
40th President of the United States 1981-1989, republican
George HW Bush
President from 1989-1993, president 1989-93; economic recession and US involvement in the Persian Gulf war
Bill Clinton
42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached
George W Bush
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
Barack Obama
44th U.S. President 2009-current Democratic
Saddam Hussein
Iraqi leader who waged war against Iran
Osama Bin Laden
Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda (born in 1957)
Timothy McViegh
27 year-old American who was tried, convicted, and executed who was responsible for the bombing in downtown Oklahoma City
What were the major effects of the 9/11 attacks in New York
invention of the department of Homeland Security, strict airling regulations, general fear of what would happen in the future
Why did the US get involved in the middle east
they became involved after the 9/11 attacks to catch Osama Bin Laden
16th amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
17th amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
18th amendment
prohibition of alcohol
19th amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
20th amendment
reduce the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms.
Grover Cleveland
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
William McKinley
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
William Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Warren Harding
president after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism 29th president
Calvin Coolidge
Became president when Harding died. Tried to clean up scandals. Business prospered and people's wealth increased
Franklin D Roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
You will need to know directions on a map (north, south, east and west)
can you do this
You will need to be able to interpret political cartoons
can you do this
you will need to be able to read graphs and answer questions
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