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Abeka Chemistry: Test 7 Review
Terms in this set (95)
~Most abundant element
~isotopes are protrium deuterium, tritium
~used primarily for synthesis of ammonia
the addition of hydrogen to double or triple bonds
~most abundant element in the earth's crust
~allotropes are Molecular and Ozone (O2 and O3)
most important industrial chemical in the United States
burning, very familiar reaction involving oxygen
Region in the upper stratosphere caused by the absorption of UVC, producing a higher concentration of ozone
usually kept in brown bottles so that light doesn't reach it and cause it to decompose
highly reactive molecules
~78% of the volume of air
~obtained by fractional distillation
~produces ammonia for fertilizers
the ability to convert atmospheric nitrogen to a form that can be used by plants
the most important of the plants that use nitrogen fixation are the bacteria of ????
Potassium and Phosphorus
Besides some form of nitrogen, fertilizers often contain other essential nutrients such as ______ and ________
~colorless gas with irritating odor
also known as industrial fixation, synthesizes the ammonia used for fertilizer
once commonly used as smelling salts (to revive someone who had fainted)
the tenth most abundant element in the earth's crust, sixth most abundant in the human body, found in RNA and DNA.
~a transparent, waxy, crystalline solid composed of discrete tetrahedral P4 molecules.
~highly toxic, causing severe gastrointestinal irritation
~produced when white phosphorus is heated to 300 degrees Celsius.
Calcium silicate is known as ????
~the major use of elemental phosphorus is the synthesis of ????
~one of the most important industrial chemicals in the United States
phosphoric acid's salts
~element that exsists as puckered, ring-shaped, or rhombic crystalline, or plastic form.
~mostly used for acid production
process used to produce the elemental sulfur.
the most important chemical in the U.S.
~85% of sulfur is used to produce this
sulfuric acid is produced using this process, which involves burning the sulfur in air
forms when sulfur is burned in air or when metal sulfides are heated in air ("roasted")
a colorless highly toxic gas that smells like rotten eggs.
~used in the tarnishing of silver
group that is too reactive to be found naturally in their free state (as pure elements)
the most reactive element
often added to drinking water in very small quantities
~used in dentistry
special chemicals used in air conditioners, refrigerators, freezers, and heat pumps to remove heat from the substance to be cooled
organic compounds having their hydrogen atoms replaced with fluorine atoms
~the most versatile elements in the periodic table
~Used for Bleaches and disinfectants
the active ingredient in household bleach
One of the most important and widely used chlorine compounds--durable, chemically inert plastic manufactured from petroleum and rock salt
lack of this in the thyroid causes goiters
monatomic gases found in nature in their uncombined form. used in electric discharge, and neon lights
most familiar noble gas. used as lifting has in airships and helium balloons.
science of extracting metals from their naturally occurring materials and preparing them for use
a naturally occurring material containing a metal in sufficient concentration to makes its extraction profitable
flotation, reduce, refine, shape
List the four general steps in the production of a useful metal from an ore.
A substance that will react with the gangue after it is concentrated and reduced.
a mixture of two or more metals usually melted together
these types of metals are very soft, and have silvery appearance. The high reactivity and electrical conductivity of these are to be expected since they have very low first ionization energies.
alkali metal used to manufacture of drugs and dyes
lithium and aluminum
an alloy (mixture) of these forms very strong, lightweight metal used in aircraft and spacecraft.
rubidium and cesium
this alloy is used to remove oxygen from vacuum tubes
contained in soaps, detergents, lye, caustic soda, textiles, oven cleaners, and petroleum products
alkaline earth metals
never found as free elements but occur only as 2+ ions in compounds
water due to the presence of calcium, Mg, and Fe(II) ions
temporary hard water
water containing calcium or magniesium bicarbonates
metal used for windows in x-ray tubes.
light but strong metal, and alloys of this are stronger than either metal alone but still remain lightweight.
an essential component of bones and teeth, but it is also involved in nerve excitation, vision, and muscle contraction
also called lime or quicklime, one of the most heavily used chemical in the U.S. Reacted with water it becomes slaked lime.
leaves deposits inside boilers, teapots, etc.
known as Epsom salts used in hot baths to reduce swelling from bruises or sprains, also used as a laxative and a cathartic.
the second most abundant metal, but it is the cheapest, and in the form of steel, the most widely used metal
a structure consisting of a vertical, heat-resistant furnace column, filled with ore and fuel, in which the chemical reactions take place.
direct iron reduction
process used to reduce iron ore to sponge iron, a solid, powdery form of iron suitable for steelmaking
the most commonly used form of iron, an alloy of iron and small amount of carbon.
alloys of carbon and iron only, containing varying percentages of carbon that are determined by the properties desired
steels that contain other metals beside iron
basic oxygen process
a furnace consisting of a chamber lined with refractory bricks composed of substances such as MgO and CaO. Pig iron is usually refined to steel using this process
an electric arc between giant carbon electrodes provides the heat to melt the metal, which typically consists of cold steel scrap and direct-reduced iron.
process by which the steel is heated to 700 C-800 C for up to several hours and then slowly cooled.
one of the simplest ways to harden a piece of steel in which the metal is bent or hammered into its final shape at a relatively low temperature.
process of steel refining that consists of dipping it in a bath of cold water or oil
after quenching, the steel to be _____ is gently heated to a moderate temperature and then allowed to cool.
used to harden the surface of the steel while leaving the interior resilient
occurs occasionally as a free element in the earth's crust but is usually found in the ores, chalcopyrite, cuprite, and malachite. Used to make brass and bronze.
metals that are valued for their appearance, durablilty, workability, and scarcity
process by which powdered silver or gold ore is mixed with aqueous sodium cyanide and exposed to warm air for several days
soft, yellow, high lustrous, and most malleable and ductile metal known.
relatively soft, lustrous, and malleable metal that has long been used in coins and jewelry.
mercury alloy containing silver used in dentistry fillings for teeth.
precious metal used in electronic devices, automotive spark plugs, surgical tools, and dental work because of its resistance to corrosion, even when white hot.
the third most abundant element in the earth's crust, and the most abundant metal
process used to produce aluminum metal
process that uses the reaction of aluminum with oxygen, either from air or from another metal oxide- very exothermic
the primary commercial use for this metal is in car and truck batteries, radiation shielding, ammunition.
a strong, lightweight, heat-resistant metal widely used in helicopters, airplanes, and spacecraft
The primary use of this metal is to fuel nuclear power plants and high-density armor
the second most abundant element behind oxygen. One of the most important uses is in the manufacture of computer chips and other electronic devices
compounds containing metals and silicon-oxygen groups. most consist of repeating units tetrahedrons, each sharing one or more oxygen atoms with other tetrahedrons to form polyanions.
electrical conductivity half-way between conductors and insulators
Three-dimensional networks or polymers of silicates in which all four oxygen atoms are shared between tetrahedrons are represented by SiO2 are called _______.
When silica is melted, it does not return to its crystalline structure when it cools; rather, it assumes an amorphous, or non-crystalline state called _____
a natural polysilicate mineral formed by heat and pressure within the earth's crust
Mineral compounds containing metals and silicon-oxygen groups.
a relatively rare element, used in laundry detergents, as fire retardants, as insecticides, and in fertilizers
Milk of Magnesia
A suspension of Magnesium Hydroxide, used as a laxative
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