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39 terms

Diseases and conditions of the Endocrine System

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Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; regulates skin pigmentation
Prolactin
hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates breast development and formation of milk during pregnancy and after delivery
Luteinizing Hormone
hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; causes ovulation; stimulates ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone; stimulates testerone production
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; initiates growth of eggs in ovaries; Stimulates spermatogenesis in testes
Corticotropin
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids
Thyrotropin
Thyroid-Stimulation Hormone
hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; stimulates thyroid gland and the production of thyroxine
Growth Hormone
hormone produced by anterior pituitary gland; promotes bone and tissue growth
Vasopressin
Antidiuretic Hormone
hormone produced by posterior pituitary gland; stimulates water resorption by renal tubules; has antidiuretic effect
Oxytocin
hormone produced by posterior pituitary gland; induces contraction of the uterine muscles during childbirth and causes the mammary glands to eject milk during nursing
Thyroxine
hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate cellular metabolism (T4)
Triiodothyronine
hormone produced in the thyroid that helps regulate cellular metabolism (T3)
Calcitonin
hormone produced by the thyroid that reduces blood calcium levels
Parathyroid Hormone
hormone produced by parathyroid gland; regulates metabolism of calcium; elevates serum calcium by drawing calcium from bones
Mineralocorticoids
hormone produced by adrenal cortex; promotes sodium reabsorption by the kidneys and helps control the salt-water balance. (ex. aldosterone)
Glucocorticoids
hormone produced by adrenal cortex; regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in cells (ex. cortisol, corticosterone, cortisone)
Gonadocorticoids
hormone produced by adrenal cortex; governs secondary sex characteristics and masculinization (ex. androgens, estrogens, progestins)
Catecholamines
hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response (fight or flight response) (ex. epinephrine and norepinephrine)
Insulin
hormone secreted by pancreas (the B cells); controls blood glucose
Glucagon
hormone secreted by pancreas (the A cells); increases concentration of glucose in blood by causing conversion of glycogen to glucose
Estrogens
hormone produced in the ovaries; cause development of female secondary sex characteristics
Progesterone
hormone produced in the ovaries; prepares and maintains endometrium for implantation and pregnancy
Testerone
hormone produced by testes; stimulates and promotes growth of male secondary sex characteristics and is essential fo rerections
Thymosin
hormone produced by thymus gland; promotes development of immune cells ( gland atrophies during adulthood)
Melatonin
hormone produced by pineal gland; regulates daily patterns of sleep and wakefulness
Gigantism
hypersecretion of GH occurs before puberty, often caused by adenoma in anterior pituitary
Acromegaly
hypersecretion of GH occurs after puberty characterized by overgrowth of bones in the face, hands and feet
Hypopituitarism
a deficiency or absence of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland
Dwarfism
hypopituitarism; congenital, treated with hGH (somatropin) until child is 5 ft tall
Diabetes Insipidus
deficiency in the release of vasopressin (ADH), may be hereditary or the result of an insult to the hypothalmus or pituitary gland
Goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland, ususally the result of iodine shortage
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
autoimmune disorder; occurs in women 8 times more than men, most common between 45-65 and is the leading cause of goiter and hypothyroidism
Graves Disease
diffuse goiter and over-production of thyroid hormone, main symptom is exophtalmos (outward protrusion of eyeballs)
Cretinism
congenital condition in infants and young children in which the thyroid gland is absent or nonfunctional resulting in mental and growth retardation
Myxedema
severe acquired hypothyroidism developing in older children or adults, s/s mimic depression
Hyperparathyroidism
increase in the breakdown of bone from skeletal system resulting in hypercalcemia, muscle weakness and atrophy
Hypoparathyroidism
s/s-hypocalcemia - hyperexcitability of nervous system resulting in overstimulation of skeletal muscles. Numbness, tingling of fingertips, toes, ears or nose, muscle spasms in hands and feet
Cushing's Syndrome
excessive cortisol levels, resulting in moon face, buffalo hump and gross obesity of trunk
Addison's Disease
partial or complete failure of adrenocortical function
Diabetes Mellitus
type I - early onset, usually before 30, little or no insulin being secreted by pancreas, insulin-dependent
type II - more common, gradual onset in people over 55, some function of pancreas remains allowing some control of symptoms by dietary management and oral medications