62 terms

American Revolution NO PICTURES

American History - 8th Grade
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What were the causes of the American Revolution?
Proclamation of 1763, Intolerable Acts, Stamp Act, Mercantilism, Lack of Representation in Parliament, and British economic policies following the French & Indian War.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. Limited westward movement of the colonists.
Appalachian Mountains
The geographical feature that had a major influence on the Proclamation of 1763.
Stamp Act
A tax that the British Parliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies.
Tea Act
Law passed by parliament led to a famous event where colonists dressed up as Native Americans and committed acts of vandalism and destruction.
Boston Tea Party
Demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor. Protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped British tea into Boston harbor.
Intolerable Acts
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses.
Mercantilism
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney & politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
Samuel Adams
Played a key role in the defense of colonial rights. He had been a leader of the Sons of Liberty and suggested the formation of the Committees of Correspondence.
Benjamin Franklin
American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor.
Formed the first firefighting company, noted newspaperman and publisher, invented bifocal glasses, stoves, and musical instruments.

During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.
Crispus Attucks
The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War
What was the role of King George III in the American Revolution?
He was the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies. The Declaration was a list of grievances against the king.
Patrick Henry
Famous speech, "Give me Liberty, or Give me Death!"

An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgess who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in Virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." He was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Marquis de Lafayette
He was known for influencing France to help the colonists in the American Revolution.

He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in France but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
Thomas Paine
Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense encouraged colonists to declare their independence.
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army. He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
What is the significance of 1776?
It was the year that the Declaration of Independence was signed. Congress voted to accept the Declaration of Independence's final wording; this was the first Independence Day on July 4, 1776.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
A 1775 conflict between colonial minutemen & British soldiers attempting to take the colonists' large store of arms; began the Revolutionary War.

FIRST SHOTS fired in the Revolutionary War.
Battle of Saratoga
The battle which was the turning point of the Revolution because after the colonists won this major victory, the French decided to support us with money, troops, ships, etc.
Battle of Yorktown
British General Cornwallis was the surrendered
General George Washington was the victor

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
Paris
City hosted the peace negotiations between the United States and Great Britain which led to terms signed between the two combatants.
Loyalist
A person who supported the British during the American Revolution
Unalienable Rights
These rights are fundamental or natural rights guaranteed to people naturally instead of by the law. They include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness., rights that cannot be given up, taken away or transferred.
propaganda
material distributed by those in favor of a specific cause and reflecting their point of view, Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
Patriot
A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution, a colonist who wanted to break free from Britain's rule
John Locke
English philosopher whose ideas influenced the founding fathers. He believed that people had NATURAL RIGHTs to life, liberty and property.
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
Second Continental Congress
They organized the Continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Committees of Correspondence
Colonists reacted to the Intolerable Acts by creating these.

These were organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Continental Army
Army formed in 1775 by the Second Continental Congress and led by General George Washington
Common Sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation.
Guerilla Warfare
type of fighting in which soldiers use swift hit-and-run attacks against the enemy
Sons of Liberty
Radical group founded by Samuel Adams in response to higher taxes during the American Revolution
Ally
a country that agrees to help another country achieve a common goal, ie. American Revolution - French were allies.
Boston Massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Representation in Parliament
Colonists felt that the laws and taxes passed by the British were unfair because they had no____________________.
What were the strengths of the British?
They had a strong well-trained army and navy along with a strong central government with food, ammunition and the support of colonial loyalists and Native Americans.
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch (King George III) and declared their independence.
Paul Revere
American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
boycott
to refuse to buy items from a particular country. The colonists upheld a __________against British goods.
minutemen
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in a minute.
natural rights stated in the Declaration of Independence
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness
Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Spain and France
supported the colonist's war for independence; were allies of the colonists
American Revolution
helped to ignite or spark the French Revolution
Navigation Acts
England passed acts to ensure the colonies remained economically loyal to England.
Salutary Neglect
Policy practiced by England during the 17th and 18th centuries of not enforcing laws and leaving the American colonies relatively free to do as they please.
Ideas that impacted the colonies
Mercantilism, Enlightenment, and Great Awakening
Townsend Act
Law passed by Parliament that required colonists to pay higher prices for goods by requiring them to have approval of the government.
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.

Weaknesses:
-lack of an executive branch - who will enforce the laws
-inability to tax - how will they raise money
-provision for unanimous consent to amend the Articles of Confederation
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
-Appointed a Governor to manage a territory
-Set population limits of 5,000 citizens as a benchmark for the election
-Set population limits of 60,000 citizens before a territory could apply for admittance into the US
Shay's Rebellion
Result of debtor farmers of Massachusetts having their property foreclosed and seized by Massachusetts officials
Great Compromise
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.

-A bicameral legislature
-Senate would be based on States having representation
-House of Representatives - representation would be based on population
Checks and balances ranches of government
Refers to the institutional checks of power between the three
Federalists
Supporters of the Constitution
Federalist Papers
Propaganda written by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton to encourage support for the Constitution.
Not united as colonies
Political cartoon by Ben Franklin
Bill of Rights
1st 10 Amendments of the Constitution

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