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un-check both sides and click term first Disclaimer: I got some of these from study island and am in no way trying to take away from them or say i made them up!!!

Some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have a cellular structure called a flagella. What is the purpose of the flagella?

to propel the cell through liquid

What is the function of the eyespot?

It detects light, which allows the euglena to obtain energy and make food.

Some cells are covered in cilia, which are tiny hair-like structures. What are two functions of cilia?

movement and obtaining food

Which of the following describes the fundamental difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Prokaryotic cells do not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.

Some prokaryotes and eukaryotes have whip-like projections that help propel the cell through liquid. What is the name of this whip-like projection?

a flagellum

Scientists often use cellular evidence in order to classify or group organisms. What is the best way to distinguish very simple organisms, such as bacteria, from more complex organisms, such as protists, plants, and animals?

by cell type, such as prokaryotic versus eukaryotic

Avery is examining cells under the microscope. She is using the 40x objective to view the slide with a 10x eyepiece


How does the size of a eukaryotic organism normally compare to the size of a prokaryotic organism?

Eukaryotes are usually much larger than prokaryotes.

best explain the function of a contractile vacuole?

maintains homeostasis by regulating an organism's water content

The presence of a nucleus suggests that Euglena are


The fingerlike projections on the surface of the cell are called cilia and are used in what processes?


Many protozoa have tiny hair-like structures that beat back and forth to aid a protozoa's movement. What are these hair-like structures called?


What cell part does an amoeba use for locomotion?


How does the DNA in prokaryotic cells differ from the DNA in eukaryotic cells?

Prokaryotic DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nuclear membrane. Prokaryotic DNA is not packaged into chromosomes.

describe the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells because eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles.

The inner membrane of the mitochondrion is folded into cristae. The cristae _______ the surface area of the inner membrane and _______ the mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP through the process of _______.

increase; enhance; cellular respiration

Eukaryotic cells contain organelles that harvest energy from organic compounds to make ATP. ATP is the main form of energy used by cells. Which cell organelles are responsible for making most of the cell's ATP?


Where in a plant cell is glucose produced?

in the chloroplasts

Why do cellular organelles have different structures?

The structures of cellular organelles are related to their functions.

Through the process of simple diffusion, materials move across a cell membrane

from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Carlos is studying different types of transport in cells. He learns that water molecules commonly cross the cell membrane. Which type of transport does water use to cross the cell membrane?

osmosis, which is a type of passive transport

_______ is the passive movement of water molecules across a cell membrane.


Osmosis involves the movement of water molecules across a cell membrane. Diffusion involves the movement of substances other than water across a cell membrane. In both of these processes, substances move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Thus, both diffusion and osmosis are forms of _______.

passive transport

Cell membranes are selectively permeable. This means that

some substances can move freely across the cell membrane, while others must be transported.

Through the process of _______, materials move across a cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.


Three distinct layers are present in the gastrula stage

the endoderm
the mesoderm
the ectoderm

These layers develop into specific cells within the body through the process of _______.

cell differentiation

Which of the following occurs during the interphase stage of the cell cycle?

I. DNA is replicated.
II. The cell divides.
III. The cell grows in size.

I and III only

Which of the following is true of the various types of cells found in an individual multicellular organism?

I. Every cell performs the same function.
II. Almost all of the cells have the same DNA.
III. Different genes are expressed in different cells.
IV. The same genes are expressed in every cell.
V. Each cell has completely different DNA.

II and III only

The cytoplasm and two nuclei that are formed during mitosis are separated into two identical daughter cells during _______.


Through what process do cells become specialized so they can perform specific functions within organisms?


Anna often finds that she becomes drowsy in the afternoons. The warmer her classroom is, the harder she finds it to stay awake. Why does warmth make her more tired?

Her body produces less energy in order to keep her from overheating.

When dry environmental conditions exist, guard cells reduce water loss from plants by closing the openings in their leaves. This process is an example of a feedback mechanism that plants use in order to

maintain homeostasis.

An organism's ability to maintain a stable internal environment in the midst of external environmental change is known as


The cells of a plant root are specialized mostly to aid in the

absorption of water and nutrients.

Cell specialization in the human body is usually due to

different cells within the human body exhibiting different patterns of gene expression.

The nucleotide of DNA is one large molecule composed of three smaller molecules. What set of molecules bond together to form a nucleotide?

deoxyribose, a nitrogen base, a phosphate group

The main purpose of DNA is to store information. Where is information stored within a DNA molecule?

in the sequence of nitrogen bases

How are complementary strands of DNA held together?

with hydrogen bonds connecting complementary bases

Cells store genetic information in DNA. That genetic information is used to synthesize _______.


Each nucleotide of a DNA molecule is made of deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and

a nitrogen base.

A sequence of nucleotides is shown below.

What does this sequence provide coding for?


DNA contains all the information a cell needs in order to make certain proteins. Where are the protein-synthesizing instructions stored on a DNA molecule?

Certain sequences of nucleotides code for the production of specific proteins.

How are complementary strands of DNA held together?

with hydrogen bonds connecting complementary bases

Cells store genetic information in DNA. That genetic information is used to synthesize _______.


What are the three main components of a DNA molecule?

a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

The shape of a DNA strand is best described as

a double helix

How are the instructions coded by DNA translated into an organism's physical traits?

Instructions coded by DNA sequences are translated into proteins which express an organism's physical traits.

AB blood type is an example of __________.


Hemophilia A is a sex-linked recessive disease. If a mother without the disease and a father without the disease have one son diagnosed with hemophilia, what is the probability that a future daughter they have together will also be afflicted with hemophilia?


Mrs. Smith has blood type A. Her father has blood type A, and her mother has blood type B. If Mr. Smith has blood type AB, what is the probability that they will have a child with blood type AB?


Carla receives an allele for blue eyes from her mother, and an allele for brown eyes from her father.

If brown eye color is a dominant trait and blue eye color is a recessive trait, what can be determined about the color of Carla's eyes?

Carla has brown eyes.

A cross between two squash plants that produce yellow squash results in 124 offspring: 93 produce yellow squash and 31 produce green squash. What are the likely genotypes of the plants that were crossed?

both Yy

Suppose that a certain breed of cat can have black, gray, or white fur. Black fur is dominant, white fur is recessive, and gray fur is intermediate (i.e., cats with gray fur possess one allele for black fur and one for white fur).

If a gray cat and a white cat have kittens, what phenotypes could the kittens exhibit?

gray or white fur

An organism's genotype can best be defined as its

inherited combination of alleles

Errors that are made during DNA replication may result in


Sometimes, during the process of replication, the DNA code is copied incorrectly, and an incorrect nucleotide is attached to the new strand of DNA. This incorrect copy is known as a


______ is a source of genetic variation that involves the swapping of sections of chromosomes during meiosis.

Crossing over

A mutation occurs in a brain cell. This mutation will be passed on to

cells produced when the mutant cell divides.

Unique heritable characteristics can result from

I. mutations of genes in an organism's sex cells.
II. mutations of genes in an organism's body cells.
III. recombination of existing genes during sexual reproduction.
IV. replication of existing genes during asexual reproduction.

I and III only

Which of the following are possible results of exposure to radiation or toxic chemicals?

I. DNA mutations occur in body cells and cancer develops.
II. DNA mutations occur in body cells and are passed on to offspring.
III. The exposed organism becomes sterile.
IV. DNA mutations occur in gametes and birth defects result.

I, III, and IV only

Cancer is a disease that usually results when

mutations cause a person's body cells to divide uncontrollably.

in 1996, a group of scientists from Scotland used a somatic (non-sex) cell of an adult sheep to produce an identical copy of that sheep. The process through which a genetically identical cell or organism is produced is known as _______.


What have scientists found to be the most efficient and effective way to insert new sequences into an individual?

Scientists use viruses to insert specific gene sequences.

By comparing DNA profiles, scientists can learn

whether the species are related.

What was produced as a result of the Human Genome Project?

a gene map of the human genome

Which of the following techniques separates molecules based on size?

gel electrophoresis

Just like actual fingerprints, DNA fingerprints are unique to most individuals (other than identical twins). Today, most police departments in the United States use DNA fingerprints as a criminal investigation tool.

What is another application of DNA fingerprints?

identifying the father of a child

A cell's work is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles.

_________ are especially important because they are involved in a variety of processes, such as cell signaling, immune response, and enzyme activity.


Protein molecules are composed of long chains of _______.

amino acids

What is true about protein molecules?

The shape and folded structure of a protein molecule are important in determining its function.

There are twenty standard amino acids that make up all proteins. What four elements are found in all amino acids?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

A student is given a small amount of unknown tan-colored liquid substance. This unknown liquid is placed into a glass of water and mixed. Despite mixing, the tan liquid remains separated from the water and collects as a large droplet at the top. Which of the macromolecule groups is this liquid MOST likely to be a member of?


Carbohydrates, such as glucose, are excellent sources of immediate energy for living organisms. More complex carbohydrates, such as glycogen and starch, can also be used for the long term storage of energy. However, carbohydrates play other vital roles, too. Which of the following describes another common use for carbohydrates?

Cellulose is used as a structural component in plant cell walls.

describe a carbohydrate.

Carbohydrates are organic macromolecules that are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and are used for energy storage or as structural molecules.

Organic macromolecules called _______ are insoluble in water, are often found in biological membranes and other waterproof coverings, and have the ability to store energy for extended periods of time.


Nucleic acids, proteins, and other large biological molecules are known as polymers because

they contain many small, repeating subunits bonded together.

During photosynthesis, plants take in light energy from the Sun, carbon dioxide from the air, and water through their roots to produce

sugar and oxygen.

Cellular respiration occurs in the __________.


______ and ________ are reactants in the process of cellular respiration.

glucose and oxygen

Which of the following is the only cell organelle that is capable of converting light energy into chemical energy?


During _________, energy from the Sun is stored in the bonds of sugar molecules.


Eukaryotic cells contain organelles that harvest energy from organic compounds to make ATP. ATP is the main form of energy used by cells. Which cell organelles are responsible for making most of the cell's ATP?


When the water availability of a plant's environment decreases, the plant can respond by closing its stomata. This reduces the amount of water that the plant loses through its leaves due to transpiration.

Closing the stomata also reduces the amount of carbon dioxide that the plant can take in through its leaves, which will most likely result in

a decreased rate of photosynthesis.

What processes require the chloroplasts and mitochondria to interact with one another?

photosynthesis and respiration

During photosynthesis, plant cells take in carbon dioxide, CO2, and release oxygen, O2. How is this different from cellular respiration?

During cellular respiration, cells use oxygen to break down glucose and release CO2, H2O, and ATP.

What is true about the flow of energy within ecosystems?

Energy flows both ways between living systems and the physical environment.

Plants and other photosynthetic organisms get their energy __________ from the Sun by absorbing the light and using it to create energy-rich __________ such as glucose.

directly, carbohydrates

During the process of photosynthesis, plants change __________ from the Sun into _________, which is stored in the bonds of carbohydrate molecules.

radiant energy, chemical energy

In the nitrogen cycle, bacteria combine nitrogen gas with hydrogen to form ammonia in the process of _______.

nitrogen fixation

Oxygen is consumed when

I. plants perform photosynthesis.
II. land is cleared for farming by burning forests.
III. plants or animals perform cellular respiration.
IV. aerobic bacteria break down dead algae in a pon

II, III, and IV only

Decomposers are a necessary part of a healthy ecosystem because they

return nutrients to the environment so matter and energy can begin another cycle.

After birth, many mammals, such as humans, cats, and dogs, tend to suck things that touch the roof of their mouth.

This is known as suckling and is

an instinctive response.

awkward question

Grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park have become repeatedly exposed to human beings, such as campers and hikers. These grizzly bears no longer exhibit a fear response to humans because

they have become habituated to human contact.

When a group of young geese watch the first thing they see after being born in order to learn behaviors, they are _______.


During certain periods of the year, some species of rodents instinctively enter a state of inactivity characterized by lowered metabolism and body temperature. This state is known as _______.

death jk

Amanda is studying insects and their responses to light. She places several types of insects in a container in a dark room. She then shines a flashlight in one corner of the container. After a few minutes, she notices that all of the moths she has placed in the container are staying near the light.

Which of the following is true?

Moths show a positive response to light

think about your front porch when you turn on the lights and when you get attacked when you walk out to door!!!

Some types of organisms can increase genetic variation through reproduction. They are able to combine the genetic material of two parents, rather than copying the genetic material of a single parent. Which organisms are capable of this?

both plants and animals

A mammal lives in an environment with warm summers and long, cold winters in which food is difficult to find. Which of the following behavioral adaptations would this mammal be the most likely to have?

hibernating during the winter

Pelicans are large birds that usually live near water. They have large, expandable pouched bills, which are useful for _______.

catching fish.
Think finding nemo!!!

A tick attaches to the flesh of a dog and feeds on the dog's blood for energy. This negatively impacts the dog by causing it discomfort and removing nutrients that the dog's body could have used for life processes, but it does not kill the dog.


Male birds of paradise are known to sometimes dance and throw feathers over their body when females are present. This behavior is the bird of paradise's method of _______.


Sometimes a bee will perform a maneuver, known as the "waggle dance," in front of another bee. What is the purpose of this maneuver?

to help bees cooperate

A lion hunts, kills, and feeds on a zebra. The lion is an example of a _______, and the zebra is its _______.

predator; prey
in that order!

Honeybees need the nectar of flowering plants in order to produce honey. How can a honeybee's relationship with flowering plants be considered mutualism?

The bees help pollinate the plants.

Organisms in an ecosystem must either produce their own energy or receive energy from other organisms.

The biological interaction in which one organism hunts, kills, and eats another organism for energy is known as _______.


An ecological interaction in which both organisms involved receive a benefit is known as


Which of the following interactions is an example of symbiosis?

an insect acts as a pollinator for a plant species

A farmer plants two species of grass with similar nutrient needs on the same small plot of land. What kind of interaction will most likely occur between the two species?


Plants require nitrogen and phosphorous but cannot efficiently absorb these nutrients from the soil. Instead, they obtain the nutrients through fungi that live in their roots. In return, the fungi have access to carbohydrates manufactured by the plants. Without the fungi, plants would not be healthy and abundant, and the food supply of all of the organisms in the ecosystem would be in danger.

This is an example of how _________ relationships maintain balance within an ecosystem.


all organisms in every environment _____________

They must compete for essential resources.

Living organisms are capable of producing populations of infinite size. However, in actuality, this does not occur because population sizes are limited by _______.

environmental conditions
organism interactions and behaviors
the availability of resources

What would have the greatest impact on the amount of dirt, oil and other contaminants added to the streams and lakes near a large urban area?

construction of a large mall and parking lot

What would most likely contribute to lowering the carrying capacity of a population?

a decrease in habitats due to human development or natural disasters

What reduces the consumption of raw materials?

the use of energy-efficient appliances
the use of smaller automobiles
recycling plastics, glass, aluminum, and paper

Which of the following is a way in which acid rain affects the environment?

I. lakes become too acidic to support life
II. essential minerals leach out of the soil
III. components become concentrated in bodies of animals
IV. trees die as a result of tissue damage

I, II, and IV only

Surface runoff from agriculture and other sources can pollute groundwater and surface water. In what way can this be harmful to humans?

These pollution sources can add disease-causing organisms or toxic substances to groundwater and surface water, which are used by humans for drinking water.

How might an environment be affected if humans introduce a new type of plant to the environment?

The plant may compete with other plants for light.
The plant may be poisonous and harmful to animals.
The plant may become another food source for animals.

In which of the following ways might humans negatively impact the environment?

I. depleting the natural resources of the environment
II. destroying habitats to make room for a growing population
III. planting more trees to make up for those previously cut down

I and II only

Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. This acid lowers the pH of the water and makes the water corrosive. What is likely to happen if carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere increase?

Acid rain will erode buildings and lower the pH of the ocean.

Most modern forms of transportation are powered by fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide, and other gases are released into the atmosphere during the production and combustion of these fuels. How might these gases cause climatic changes?

These gases reduce the amount of thermal energy escaping into space, effectively warming the atmosphere.

In order to better understand similarities and differences among biological organisms, scientists developed a system of classification.

Initially, the system only consisted of two kingdoms - Animalia and Vegetabilia. Now, there are six kingdoms - Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

This demonstrates that

systems of classification are adaptable.

The earliest classification systems grouped organisms based on _______. Since then, newer classification systems have used _______ to better understand evolutionary ancestry.

anatomical similarities; genetic analysis

Fur seals and sea lions have similar body shapes and features. Based on their anatomy, they seem to have a relatively recent common evolutionary ancestor.

What further evidence would best substantiate that the two animals have a recent common ancestor?

The animals have very similar sequences in their DNA.

Which of the following is hypothesized to be the early source of free oxygen in Earth's atmosphere?

photosynthesis by cyanobacteria

The first organisms on Earth appeared approximately 3.5 billion years ago, and all were all unicellular. Multicellular organisms have only existed for about one billion years.

What evolutionary milestone made it possible for more complex, multicellular organisms to exist?

appearance of eukaryotic cells

A particular environment has enough food to support 50 rats through the winter. At the end of winter one year, there are 25 female rats and 25 male rats. Each of the 25 females gives birth to several litters of 3-6 pups each. In the fall, there are 300 rats.

Ignoring the effects of predators and disease, what will happen to this population of rats between fall and the next spring?

The fifty rats best able to get and keep food will survive to reproduce next spring.

The source of genetic variation that occurs during meiosis and results in new combinations of alleles is known as _______.

genetic recombination

The main tenets of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection include:

I. Individuals can produce more offspring than can survive.
II. The traits within a population vary and are heritable.
III. Traits acquired during an individual's lifetime are heritable.
IV. Individuals compete for resources.
V. Individuals most adapted to their environments have a better chance of surviving to reproduce.

I, II, IV, and V only

A population of mammals originally lived in a certain area surrounded by land. Then, some of the organisms were taken to an island. These two populations remained separated for hundreds of years.

The organisms on the island are slightly different than those on the mainland.

What is an example of something that resulted from a genetic variation that was favored by natural selection?

the long neck of a giraffe

Speciation is the process by which new species

are formed.

Imagine an earthquake creates a chasm that separates a population of squirrels. The two populations of squirrels evolve into two separate species. What is the name of the process by which isolated populations of the same species become new species?


Organisms with traits that are well-suited to an environment tend to survive and reproduce at a greater rate than organisms that are less suited to an environment. This phenomena is known as _______.

natural selection

All organisms that sexually reproduce exhibit behavior that encourages reproductive activities from the opposite sex. Why would this form of behavior most likely be naturally selected?

Organisms that have behaviors that encourage reproduction would be more likely to reproduce.

In living organisms, DNA consists of

double helix

Genes are sections of DNA that contain information to make a protein. Genes can be turned on or off to control the protein

Injury repair may occur more quickly.

The sequence of bases on one strand of a DNA molecule is ATTGCCCATG. What will be the sequence on the complementary strand?


In which of the following ways does genetic information typically flow in an organism?

DNA RNA proteins

What are the three main components of a DNA molecule?

a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

Which of the following best describes the product of RNA translation?

a protein

Each nucleotide of a DNA molecule is made of deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and

a nitrogen base.

The DNA sequences that make up the genetic code of an organism determine which traits the organism will exhibit.

How are the instructions coded by DNA translated into an organism's physical traits?

Instructions coded by DNA sequences are translated into proteins which express an organism's physical traits.

The type of RNA that transfers amino acids to growing polypeptide chains during translation is known as


The instructions for building proteins necessary for all life functions are coded within an organism's genetic code. The genetic code of an organism consists of codons, or sequences of three nucleotides, that each code for a specific amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

The amino acids coded by specific codons

are almost universal among all living things.

From the list below, select the items that are used during RNA translation.

III. ribosome
IV. amino acid

I, II, III, and IV

The nucleotide of DNA is one large molecule composed of three smaller molecules. Which of the following sets of molecules bond together to form a nucleotide?

deoxyribose, a nitrogen base, a phosphate group

How are complementary strands of DNA held together?

with hydrogen bonds connecting complementary bases

During the process, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results in the formation of two identical DNA molecules.

This process is known as DNA _______.


During transcription, enzymes bind to a molecule of DNA.
Then, the enzymes unwind and separate the DNA's double helical strands. As the molecule unwinds, complementary nucleotides pair with one of the DNA strands to form

an RNA molecule.

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