APUSH Chapter Test Review (11-15)
Terms in this set (99)
Perhaps no issue in American history has generated quite as much controversy or as many interpretations as ___________, the "peculiar institution."
Paralelling the growth of the southern economy and its dependence on the slave labor system, the number of slaves in the United States rapidly increased from 1.5 million in 1820 to ______ million in 1860.
One of the busiest domestic slave trading routes began in Alexandria, Virginia, and ended in __________, Mississippi.
Congress formally ended the international slave trade on January 1, 1808, the earliest time allowed by the ____________.
In order to destroy the potential power of organized white workers to strike, the ___________ company of Richmond switched from white to slave labor "almost exclusively" in 1847.
The majority, approximately ______________ percent, of southern whites owned no slaves.
In slaves folktales, the clever ___________ usually outwitted themore powerful Brer Fox or Brer Wolf, thus reversing the roles of oppressed and oppressor.
Slaves who hid out for months and years at a time in communities of runaway slaves, especially in the swamps of Florida, were called "___________."
A series of safe houses and stations where runaway slaves could rest, eat, and spend the night before continuing their escape, the __________ was organized by abolitionists.
The most famous slave revolt in North America, which occurred in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831 was led by ____________.
A kindly mistress, she was transformed by slavery from an angel into a demon by the "fatal poison of irresponsible power."
An escaped slave, she became the most famous "conductor" of the Underground Railroad, leading some 300 slavs out of the South on 19 separate trips.
This slave was the leader of an extensively planned but ultimately unsuccessful slave revolt in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1822.
An intelligent, skilled, and religious slave who led a revolt in Virginia in 1831 which resulted in the deaths of 55 whites.
An African-American slave who organized an unsuccessful revolt in Virginia in 1800.
An enlightened and talented rice planter and later governor of South Carolina, he viewed the tasks of slaveholding as both a duty and a burden.
Robert Francis Allston
A southern apologist for slavery, adopting a sociological point of view, he argued that black slaves in the South were better off than the "wage slaves" in norther factories.
His publications of the radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator" in 1831, along with the Nat Turner revolt of that year, led to tightening of the slave system in the south.
William Lloyd Garrison
Escaping to freedom by forging a free black sailor's pass, this ex-slave wrote a powerful narrative of his life to expose the many evils of slavery.
In 1881, this white southerner wrote "The Wonderful Tar Baby Story".
Joel Chandler Harris
As a result of the Second Great Awakening, the _______ Church became the largest denomination in the United States by 1844, with over a million members.
Protesting against slavery and the Mexican War, ________ refused to pay his taxes, went to jail briefly, and wrote the classic essay, "On Civil Disobedience." (1849)
In his famous essay "Exposition and Protest," John Calhoun presented the doctrine of __________, by which Southerners could protect themselves from harmful national action.
The Cherokee remember their forced removal, during which perhaps a quarter of their tribe died, as the __________.
Trail of Tears
In the election of 1832, the National Republicans adopted the name of ____________ to show their opposition to "King Andrew" Jackson and his supporters.
As a result of government policies designed to halt inflamation during the end of Jackson's term of office, worried investors rushed to convert paper notes into cash, creating the ___________.
Panic of 1837
Under the brilliant leadership of Joseph Smith's successor, ___________, the Mormons headed westward in 1846 in their continuing search for "the land of promise."
The "Lane rebels" led by Theodore Dwight Weld turned __________ College into the first institution in the United States open equally to women and men, blacks and whites.
The American Colonizationist Society, founded in 1816, sent a small number of manumitted slaves to __________ on the west coast of Africa.
In 1837, an angry mob murdered _______, an antislavery editor in Illinois, and destroyed his printing press.
This president was characterized by the Jacksonians as a weak, ineffectual thinker who had won the election of 1824 by bribing Henry Clay for his support.
John Quincy Adams
This president used the veto power more often than the six preceding presidents behind him.
This president responded inadequately to the economic depression of the late 1830s with sympathetic but limited measures that made things even worse.
Martin Van Buren
This president was nominated on the basis off his military exploits at the Battle of Tippecanoe fought nearly 30 years earlier.
William Henry Harrison
This vice-president from Virginia was nominated by the Whigs in 1840 to try to underline the regional diversity of the party.
Touted as the female counterpart to the masculine Christ, she founded the Shaker religion, a millennialist group believing in sexual equality and chastity.
A frail New Englander, she reported on the miserable conditions of asylums in Massachusetts, helping to stimulate reform efforts there.
A demure but outspoken Quaker, she married abolitionist Theodore Dwight Weld and together with her sister, helped him research and write his famous book attacking American slavery.
Together with Lucretia Mott, she organized an 1848 convention at Seneca Falls, New York, to proclaim the rights of women.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
This revivalist believed humans were moral free agents who could choose good or evil and needed to commit to reforming society.
Charles G. Finney
The conviction that America's superior institutions and culture gave the United States a God-given right, even an obligation, to spread its civilization across the continent was expressed in the phrase _________.
Upon news of the Texas rebellion, Mexican dictator and general ___________ hurried north to crush it with an army of 6,000 conscripts.
Hoping the issue would boost his reelection chances in 1844, President ______ reopened the question of annexing Texas.
In securing the Democratic nomination in 1844, _________ called for "the reannexation of Texas at the earliest practicable period" and the occupation of the Oregon Territory.
James K Polk
__________ tended to oppose annexation of Texas fearing expansion of slavery and growth of southern power.
Although he successfully negotiated an end to the Mexican War, ___________ was fired by President Polk who denounced him as an "unqualified scoundrel."
President Polk considered the 49th parallel a reasonable boundary for the Oregon Territory, for it would extend the ____________ to the Pacific.
Joseph Smith's murder in 1844 marked no end to the persecution of his followers, the __________, who decided to seek refuge in the arid Great Basin area of Utah.
Most of the Plains Indians were dependent upon the ___________, which provided them with food, fuel, clothing, shelter, and trade items.
Supposedly a measure to validate Spanish and Mexican land titles, it forced the California land owners to defend their property.
Gwinn Land law of 1851
A Sioux Chief who refused to abide by a federal agreement in 1851 to keep his tribe north of the Platte River.
In this negotiation ending the Mexican War, the United States secured the Rio Grande border and obtained the regions of Upper California and New Mexico.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
In this first agreement between the United States and the Plain Indians, the chiefs accepted certain gifts and payments in return for accepting tribal boundaries.
Fort Laramie Treaty
He led 300 families into Texas in 1823 to help settle northern Mexico.
Stephen F. Austin
As commander-in-chief of the Texan forces, he led them to victory over the Mexican army of Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto in 1836.
Ordered by President Polk to protect the Rio Grande border, this general suffered an "attack" by Mexican forces which led to an American declaration of war.
During the Mexican War, this colonel led the American conquest of New Mexico and California.
Stephen W. Kearney
Assuming leadership after the death of Joseph Smith, he organized the Mormons in their westward trek and settlement in Salt Lake City.
A faction of democrats in New York bolted the party in 1848 and joined with "conscience" Whigs to form the Free-Soil party and support _______________ for president.
Martin Van Buren
The most controversial part of the Compromise of 1850 was the ________, appeasing the southerners but infuriating northerners.
Fugitive Slave Act
When President Lincoln met _________ in 1863, he is reported to have said, "So you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war."
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Although it began as a railroad measure, the ________ Act ended in reopening the question of slavery in the territories.
Conducting raids in Latin America in search of additional slave territory during the 1850s, _______ was captured and shot by a Honduran firing squad after invading that country.
Founded in opposition to new immigrants of the 1850s, the ________ Party advocated a longer period of naturalization.
Following his tirade of "The Crime Against Kansas," Senator ________ was caned by Congressman Preston Brooks.
Although losing the Illinois senate race of 1858 to democrat _________, Abraham Lincoln defeated the same opponent for president of the United States in 1860.
Leading a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859, radical abolitionist _________ hoped to provoke a general uprising of slaves throughout the Upper South.
On April 12, 1861, as Lincoln's relief expedition neared Charleston, General P. G. T. Beauregard's batteries shelled _____________, and the Civil War began.
This proposed amendment to an appropriations bill prohibited slavery in any territories acquired from Mexico.
This legislation allowed the organization of the Utah and New Mexico territories.
Compromise of 1850
This document was intended to pressure Spain to sell Cuba to the United States.
The Supreme Court declared that Congress had no constitutional power to regulate slavery in the territories.
Dred Scott decision
This document would have provided for the admission of Kansas to the Union as a slave state.
Mexican War hero and Louisiana slaveholder, he was nominated for president by the Whigs in 1848 despite his lack of political experience.
Succeeding to the presidency upon Zachary Taylor's death, he lent his support to the Compromise of 1850.
A lackluster winner of the apathetic election of 1852, he won the election with the support of Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Germany.
Another Democratic northerner with southern principles, he endorsed the Dred Scott decision of 1857 as a final settlement of the issue of slavery in the territories.
Campaigning as a moderate Republican in 1860, he favored a ban on the extension of slavery rather than abolition of the institution.
In "Ex Part Merryman," Chief Justice __________ of the Supreme Court ruled that if the public's safety in endangered, only Congress had the right to suspend the writ of habeas corpus.
Roger B. Taney
Winfield Scott, the Union commanding general at the beginning of the civil war, favoered a cautious, long-term strategy known as the ______________.
The early struggle of the Civil War in the East focused on the capture of ___________, the Confederacy's capital and one of the South's most important railroad, industrial, and munitions centers.
Originally a U. S. warship, which sank as the federal navy abandoned the Norfolk Navy Yard, the Confederates raised the _______ and covered it with heavy armor.
Merrimac (or Virginia)
Immigrant workers in eastern cities and those who lived in the southern parts of the Midwest had little sympathy for abolitionism or blacks, supporting the antiwar stance of the Peace Democrats, the so-called ___________.
Unless rebellious states (or parts of states in rebellion) returned to the Union by January 1, 1863, the president would declare their slaves "forever free," according to the _________.
On July 3, 1863, General Robert E. Lee sent about 15,000 men in a gallant but futile assault, known as ___________, against the Union center at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Fashionable Washington photographer ___________, realizing that the camera was the "eye of history," asked Lincoln for permission to record the war.
On April 9, 1865, Grant accepted Lee's surrender at ________, ending the Civil War for all practical purposes.
Some 31,000 Union soldiers were confined and over 12,000 graves were counted at war's end at the Confederate prison of _________ in Georgia.
Only five days after the surrender at Appomattox, a southern sympathizer named __________ assassinated President Lincoln at Ford's Theater.
John Wilkes Booth
An early and prophetic meeting, this battle was characterized by the logistic problems for both sides in the supply and movement of large armies.
A surprise Confederate attack, this was eventually won by Grant's forces at heavy cost, draining him of the resources to force early capture of the Mississippi River.
A Union victory, this battle presented President Lincoln with the opportunity to issue a preliminary emancipation proclamation.
The end of Lee's invasion of the North, this battle inflicted such heavy losses on his army that he could never mount another southern offensive.
The completion of the Union campaign to gain control of the Mississippi River and divide the South, this battle ensured the promotion of Ulysses S. Grant as general-in-chief of the Union forces.
Former cabinet member, U.S senator, and Mexican War veteran, this aristocratic southerner served as the president of the Confederacy.
Noted for his organizational skills rather than his daring leadership on the battlefield, this northern general later ran for president in 1864 on a platform of ending the war.
Although his career in the peacetime army had been undistinguished, this northern general's military genius to see beyond individual battles to larger goals helped him rise to general-in-chief of the Union armies.
Ulysses S. Grant
Waging a defensive war in the early years, this general felt that a successful southern offensive would bring diplomatic recognition and might even force the North to sue for peace.
Robert E. Lee
Northern general who led the campaign to capture Atlanta and Savannah, he spread destruction to make southerners "fear and dread" their foes.
William T. Sherman