unit 6 vocabulary; zulmarie belvis

unit 6 vocabulary
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agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
animal domestication
deliberate tending of livestock
first agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
plant domestication
cultivating plants that can regenerate when some part of the plant itself is buried and tended.
second agricultural revolution
Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce.
shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
subsistence farming
farming in which only enough food to feed one's family is produced
third agricultural revolution
Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
thunian patterns
situations following Von Thunen's model that organizes a city's into five rings by their agricultural function
cadastral system
patterns of settlement and land use that delineates property lines
dispersed settlement
characterized by a lower density of population and the wide spacing of individual homesteads.
folk-housing region
a region in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have long inhabited the area.
functional differentiation
Different types of settlements are specialized for certain tasks.
hamlet
a community of people smaller than a village
long-lot survey
divided land into narrow parcels stretching back form rivers, roads, or canals.
maladaptive diffusion
Diffusion of a process with negative side effects or What works well in one region may not in another
metes and grounds survey
Natural features were used to demarcate irregular parcels of land
nucleated settlement
a compact closely packed settlement sharply demarcated from adjoining farmland
primogeniture
seniority by birth; state of being the first-born child; right of the eldest child (to inherit the entire property of one or both parents)
rectangular land survey
The system that divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
township-and-range system
a rectangular land divisoion scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the U.S. interior.
village
a community of people smaller than a town
wattle
Traditional dwelling built using poles and sticks that are woven tightly together and then plastered with mud.
agribusiness
The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products.
biotechnology
the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
commercial agriculture
producing products from imported raw materials
green revolution
the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
luxury crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
organic agriculture
refers to crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers
plantation agriculture
raising a large amount of a "cash crop" for local sale or export
agent
the organisms that invade the body or contaminate the environment
AIDS
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
cholera
an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
chronic disease
a disease that develops gradually and continues over a long period of time
contagious disease
any disease easily transmitted by contact
endemic
a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
genetic diseases
Those diseases (malfunctions) that result from abnormalities in chromosomes or DNA, and are inherited.
hidden hunger
people who may consume enough calories to survive, but lack certain nutrients - specifically protein (protein deficiency in the first three years can cause permanent damage; both to mental capacity & physical growth).
hosts
Organism that carries the disease
infectious disease
A disease that is caused by a pathogen and that can be spread from one individual to another.
influenza
viral infection of the respiratory system characterized by chills, fever, body aches, and fatigue.
malaria
a disease caused by mosquitoes implanting parasites in the blood
malnutrition
the results in the body of poor nutrition; undernutrition, overnutrition, or any nutrient deficiency
medical geography
the study of health and diseases with geographic perspective.
pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
vector
any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease
reservoir
anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies
yellow fever
a disease transmitted by mosquitoes: its symptoms inclued high fever and vomiting

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