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1. Always inherit a pair of genes that control a trait, one from each parent 2. A gene for a single trait comes in alternate forms called alleles- either dominant or recessive
Two different types of one gene - one is dominant the other recessive. The recessive will not show up unless the dominant is not present
the alleles you possess for a given trait, three types: Homozygous dominant, Homozygous recessive, and heterozygous
Law of Segregation (Mendel's 1st principle)
two alleles of any gene are on homologs that separate from each other in Anaphase of meiosis. Half sex cells get one allele, and the other half get the other
Law of Independent Assortment (Mendel's 2nd principle)
Homolog arrangement in Metaphase I is random, passing a maternal allele from one homolog does not affect any other homologous pair
Sex Linked Traits
A trait that is only present on the 23rd homologous pair- the X or the Y. If a Y linked trait- will always appear since there is only ever one Y in the 23rd homologous pair (Male=xy, Female= xx)
Trait is dominant: phenotype appears every generation, affected individual has at least one affected parent, affects both male and female
Trait is recessive: phenotype can skip a generation, affected individual can have unaffected parents, affects both male and female
Phenotype is both alleles, but not blended- more blotchy. Is often ENVIRONMENTALLY influenced
A gene that has more than two possible alleles- you can only inherit two, even if there are more than two possibilities
Makes up Chromatids- make up chromosomes: Made of histone protines with strands of DNA wrapped around them twice
Carbohydrates in "railing" of DNA is____ bonded to ____
covalently bonded to "rungs" of nitrogenous bases
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