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120 terms

Digestive, Mediastinum, Diaphragm

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IDEA - digestive system function
Ingestion, digestion, elimination, absorption
Number of teeth...
32
Types of teeth...
incisor, cuspid, bicuspid, tricuspid
tooth parts
crown (outer portion) - neck (narrow part below gum line) - root (end) - pulp cavity (core)
Salivary Glands
Parotid (cheek) - Submandibular (lower jaw) - Sublingual (under tongue)
What is the pharynx?
Throat
Tube thru which air, food, and water travel...
pharynx
What covers the larynx (esophagus) when swallowing?
Epiglottis
Tube that carries food from pharynx to stomach?
Esophagus
Stomach (3 parts)
Fundus (upper) - Body (middle) - Antrum/Pylorus (lower)
What is a sphincter?
Ring of muscles
Sphincter at entry of stomach...
Gastroesophageal or Cardiac
Sphincter from stomach into small intestine...
Pyloric
The stomach is lined with...
Rugae
Small Intestines (3 parts)
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
Large Intestines (3 main parts)
Cecum, Colon, Sigmoid Colon
Colon consists of...(4 parts)
ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon
Sigmoid colon is connected to...
The rectum which terminates at the anus
Your appendix extends from...(connects the ileum to colon)
cecum
What organ produces bile?
The liver
What stores bile?
The gallbladder
Bile is sent from the liver to the gallbladder via...
the hepatic duct and cystic duct
Bile emulsifies what?
Fat (breaks up large globules)
Large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum...
Pancreas
What is embedded in the pancreas and produces insulin and glucagon...
Islets of Langerhans
Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and maintains organ positions...
Peritoneum
Surgical connection between two parts...
Anastomosis
Refers to the gallbladder, bile, or bile duct (common bile duct)
Biliary (tract)
Difficulty swallowing
Dysphagia
Pulling viscera outside the body through an incision...
Evisceration
Use of electric current to destroy...
Fulgeration
Organ or tissue that protrudes through a wall or cavity that usually contains it...
Hernia
Two words that describe types of hernias...
Incarcerated and strangulated
Term for overlapping...
Imbrication
Term for varicose veins...
Varices
Twisted section of intestines...
Volvulus
The projection at the back of the mouth...
Uvula
Disorders of the oral cavity include...
Defects, infections, and carcinomas
Congenital defect where lip and palate do not properly join together...
Cleft lip and cleft palate
Ulcer or canker sore of the mouth caused by...
HSV1 - Herpes Simplex Virus
Small ulcer
Aphtha
Naturally found in the mouth...
Candida Albicans - Candidiasis
Oral candidiasis
Thrush
Thrush is common in what type of patients?
Diabetics and AIDS patients
Most common type of oral cavity cancer...
Squamous cell carcinoma
Oral cancer type seen in AIDS patients...
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Also known as progressive systemic sclerosis
Scleroderma
Atrophy of smooth muscles of lower esophagus...
Scleroderma
Caused by a hiatal hernia...inflammation leads to scarring...
Esophagitis
Most common type of esophagus cancer...
Squamous cell or secondary adenocarcinoma
Esophagus passes through the diaphragm...part of stomach protrudes through opening in diaphragm into thorax...
Hiatal Hernia
GERD
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
GERD is associated with...
Hiatal Hernias
Inflammation of the stomach mucosa...H. Pylori bacteria...
Gastritis
Erosive area on mucosa caused by stress or H. pylori bacteria...
Peptic Ulcers
Most often occurs in men over 40...cause unknown...often associated with H. Pylori bacteria...
Gastric Ulcer
Predisposing factors of gastric ulcers...
Pernicious anemia...blood type A...carcinogenic foods (smoked meats, nitrates, and pickled foods)
Narrowing of pyloric sphincter...signs appear at birth...symptom is projectile vomiting...
Pyloric Stenosis
most important malabsorption condition...villi atrophy in response to gluten foods...
Celiac Disease
Regional Enterisitis...Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)...affects terminal ileum and colon...inflammation of GI tract
Crohn's Disease
Most common ulcer...develop in younger population...common in Type O blood types...
Duodenal Ulcers
Inflammation of veriform appendix that projects from cecum
Appendicitis
Appendix is located in what quadrant?
RLQ
Inflammation of the peritoneum or membrane that lines the abdominal cavity...usually result of spread of infection or puncture wound...
Peritonitis
Condition of the large intestine that forms sacs in the lining...herniation of intestinal mucosa...
Diverticulosis
When sacs become inflammed...
Diverticulitis
Inflammation of the rectum that progresses to the sigmoid colon...causes increased risk for colorectal cancer...Symptoms are diarrhea and severe cramping...
Ulcerative Colitis
Usually develops from polyps in those 55 and older...
Colorectal cancer
A symptom of biliary disease...icterus...hyperbilirubinemia...
Jaundice
Most commonly a metatasis...secondary cancer
Liver Cancer
Risks for Primary Liver Cancer are...
Hepatitis B, C, and D - Cirrhosis - heavy smoking and alcohol use
Liver cells are damaged which results in inflammation and necrosis...scar tissue forms in the liver...
Viral Hepatitis
Infectious hepatitis most commonly transmitted through contaminated food or water and is curible...
Hepatitis A
Serum Hepatitis...transmission through IV drug use and exposure to blood and bodily fluids and sexual transmission...has long incubation period.
Hepatitis B
Chronic Hepatitis...most common in blood trasnfussions and IV drug users...
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis B is present for this type of Hepatitis to develop...
Hepatitis D
Fecal oral route...hepatitis that does not develop into chronic or carrier...
Hepatitis E
Profuse liver damage
Cirrhosis
Gallbladder is located in what quadrant?
RUQ
Inflammation of the gallbladder and cystic duct...
Cholecystitis
Inflammation of the bile duct...
Cholangitis
Formation of gallstones...RUQ pain
Cholelithiasis
Inflammation of the pancreas...commonly associated with alcoholism, biliary tract obstruction, drug toxicity, gallstone obstruction...
Pancreatitis
an/o
anus
bucc/o
cheek
celi/o
stomach/abdomen
cheil/o
lip
chol/e
gall/bile
cholangio/o
bile duct
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
choledoch/o
common bile duct
col/o
colon
enter/o
small intestine
gastr/o
stomach
gloss/o
tongue
hepat/o
liver
labi/o
lip
lapar/o
abdomen
lingu/o
tongue
lip/o
fat
lith/o
stone
or/o
mouth
sial/o
saliva
sialaden/o
salivary gland
steat/o
fat
stomat/o
mouth
-ase
enzyme
-cele
hernia
-chezia
defecation
-iasis
abnormal condition
-phagia
eating - swallowing
-prandial
meal - postprandial = after meals
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal
Area between lungs...
Mediastinum
areas of the mediastinum...
Superior, anterior, posterior, middle
Space that houses heart, thymis gland, trachea, esophagus, nerves, lymph, and blood vessels...
Mediastinum
Breathing muscle...dome shaped muscular partition that separates abdominal cavity from thoracic cavity...
Diaphragm