Digestive, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
IDEA - digestive system function
Ingestion, digestion, elimination, absorption
Number of teeth...
Types of teeth...
incisor, cuspid, bicuspid, tricuspid
crown (outer portion) - neck (narrow part below gum line) - root (end) - pulp cavity (core)
Parotid (cheek) - Submandibular (lower jaw) - Sublingual (under tongue)
What is the pharynx?
Tube thru which air, food, and water travel...
What covers the larynx (esophagus) when swallowing?
Tube that carries food from pharynx to stomach?
Stomach (3 parts)
Fundus (upper) - Body (middle) - Antrum/Pylorus (lower)
What is a sphincter?
Ring of muscles
Sphincter at entry of stomach...
Gastroesophageal or Cardiac
Sphincter from stomach into small intestine...
The stomach is lined with...
Small Intestines (3 parts)
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
Large Intestines (3 main parts)
Cecum, Colon, Sigmoid Colon
Colon consists of...(4 parts)
ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon
Sigmoid colon is connected to...
The rectum which terminates at the anus
Your appendix extends from...(connects the ileum to colon)
What organ produces bile?
What stores bile?
Bile is sent from the liver to the gallbladder via...
the hepatic duct and cystic duct
Bile emulsifies what?
Fat (breaks up large globules)
Large gland behind the stomach that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum...
What is embedded in the pancreas and produces insulin and glucagon...
Islets of Langerhans
Serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and maintains organ positions...
Surgical connection between two parts...
Refers to the gallbladder, bile, or bile duct (common bile duct)
Pulling viscera outside the body through an incision...
Use of electric current to destroy...
Organ or tissue that protrudes through a wall or cavity that usually contains it...
Two words that describe types of hernias...
Incarcerated and strangulated
Term for overlapping...
Term for varicose veins...
Twisted section of intestines...
The projection at the back of the mouth...
Disorders of the oral cavity include...
Defects, infections, and carcinomas
Congenital defect where lip and palate do not properly join together...
Cleft lip and cleft palate
Ulcer or canker sore of the mouth caused by...
HSV1 - Herpes Simplex Virus
Naturally found in the mouth...
Candida Albicans - Candidiasis
Thrush is common in what type of patients?
Diabetics and AIDS patients
Most common type of oral cavity cancer...
Squamous cell carcinoma
Oral cancer type seen in AIDS patients...
Also known as progressive systemic sclerosis
Atrophy of smooth muscles of lower esophagus...
Caused by a hiatal hernia...inflammation leads to scarring...
Most common type of esophagus cancer...
Squamous cell or secondary adenocarcinoma
Esophagus passes through the diaphragm...part of stomach protrudes through opening in diaphragm into thorax...
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
GERD is associated with...
Inflammation of the stomach mucosa...H. Pylori bacteria...
Erosive area on mucosa caused by stress or H. pylori bacteria...
Most often occurs in men over 40...cause unknown...often associated with H. Pylori bacteria...
Predisposing factors of gastric ulcers...
Pernicious anemia...blood type A...carcinogenic foods (smoked meats, nitrates, and pickled foods)
Narrowing of pyloric sphincter...signs appear at birth...symptom is projectile vomiting...
most important malabsorption condition...villi atrophy in response to gluten foods...
Regional Enterisitis...Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)...affects terminal ileum and colon...inflammation of GI tract
Most common ulcer...develop in younger population...common in Type O blood types...
Inflammation of veriform appendix that projects from cecum
Appendix is located in what quadrant?
Inflammation of the peritoneum or membrane that lines the abdominal cavity...usually result of spread of infection or puncture wound...
Condition of the large intestine that forms sacs in the lining...herniation of intestinal mucosa...
When sacs become inflammed...
Inflammation of the rectum that progresses to the sigmoid colon...causes increased risk for colorectal cancer...Symptoms are diarrhea and severe cramping...
Usually develops from polyps in those 55 and older...
A symptom of biliary disease...icterus...hyperbilirubinemia...
Most commonly a metatasis...secondary cancer
Risks for Primary Liver Cancer are...
Hepatitis B, C, and D - Cirrhosis - heavy smoking and alcohol use
Liver cells are damaged which results in inflammation and necrosis...scar tissue forms in the liver...
Infectious hepatitis most commonly transmitted through contaminated food or water and is curible...
Serum Hepatitis...transmission through IV drug use and exposure to blood and bodily fluids and sexual transmission...has long incubation period.
Chronic Hepatitis...most common in blood trasnfussions and IV drug users...
Hepatitis B is present for this type of Hepatitis to develop...
Fecal oral route...hepatitis that does not develop into chronic or carrier...
Profuse liver damage
Gallbladder is located in what quadrant?
Inflammation of the gallbladder and cystic duct...
Inflammation of the bile duct...
Formation of gallstones...RUQ pain
Inflammation of the pancreas...commonly associated with alcoholism, biliary tract obstruction, drug toxicity, gallstone obstruction...
common bile duct
eating - swallowing
meal - postprandial = after meals
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
gastroesophageal reflux disease
Area between lungs...
areas of the mediastinum...
Superior, anterior, posterior, middle
Space that houses heart, thymis gland, trachea, esophagus, nerves, lymph, and blood vessels...
Breathing muscle...dome shaped muscular partition that separates abdominal cavity from thoracic cavity...