92 terms

Lymphatic System Chapter 19

Marieb and Hoehn
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Lymphatic Vessels
Collect excess fluid from interstitial spaces
Minivalves in their walls
Lymphatic capillaries owe their permeability to the presence of
Excess blood plasma builds up in region where there are no lymph vessels
Why would removal of lymph vessels from the right axillary region cause edema in the right arm?
Arteries, blood capillaries, lymhatic vessels, subclavian vein
Which of the following represents a logical sequence of structures that contribute to the return of fluid in the blood via the lymphatic system
The milking action of skeletal muscle contraction and pressure changes in the thorax that result from breathing
Which of the following contribute(s) to the flow of lymph through lymphatic vessels
bacteria, virus, and mismatched red blood cells
which of the following would the body perceive as an antigen
at the locations where lymphatic collecting vessels converge
The highest density of lymph nodes can be found
Bacteria, Large Proteins and Interstitial Fluid
Can enter Lymph Capillaries
An Advantage to having reticular connective tissue in lymph nodes would be that
The loose organization of reticular connective tissue provides niches for macrophages and lymphocytes, lymph filters through the nodes and is exposed to lymphocytes and macrophages, and lymphocytes cycle to various areas of the body and back to lymph nodes
fewer efferent lymphatic vessels than afferent lymphatic vessels
Lymph tends to stall inside lymph nodes due to
Spleen
The largest lymphoid organ
Blood filtering; immunity
Red pulp of the spleen is most concerned with ___ and ___, while white pulp is most concerned with ___.
T Lymphocyte maturation
The thymus is important for
The immune system
The diverse set of molecules and immune cells that are found in lymphoid tissue and fluids throughout the body
Spleen
Which of the following lymphoid tissues removes defective red blood cells from the blood
trapping pathogens to develop immune cells with memory
Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by
Skin and mucous membranes
Which of the following act as the first line of defense against foreign pathogens
Natural cell killers
The two intrinsic defense systems have many components. Which of the following cell types is not a contributor to specific immunity?
Monocytes
Macrophages are derived from ___
Neutrophils; monocytes
____ And ____ are the most common phagocytic cells in the blood
Mucus
Which of the following is not a mechanical barrier to pathogen invasion
The respiratory burst
In order for some phagocytes to destroy certain pathogens they must have ingested (like tuberculosis), ____must be deployed
They are all vasodilators
What characteristics do all inflammatory chemicals share
Leukocytosis
An increase in white blood cell number at sites of injury, which is characteristic of inflammation, is called ____
Red, hot, swollen and painful
Your hand has a scratch. What signals would indicate that the injury is inflammed?
bacterial cell membrane lysis
The basic mechanism employed by complement to fight bacterial infections is
diapedesis
The process by which phagocytes exit capillaries and enter injured tissue is called
interferon
A patient has contracted the hepatitis c virus. Which of the following drug therapies might be effective
opsonization
The process of attaching complement proteins to the bacterial cell wall to enhance phagoctosis is called
An increase in body temperatures set point
What would be the body's response if the hypothalamus detected pyrogens?
MHC
The presence of____ proteins makes it possible for our immune system to differentiate between our cells and those that are foreign
Haptens
___become antigenic if they attach themselves to larger proteins
Nonself-antibody
Which of the following materials or compounds wold be the most highly immunogenic
cell-mediated; humoral
The adaptive immune system involves three major cell types: antigen-presenting cells, T cells, which constitute ____ immunity, and B cells, which govern____ immunity
Certain T cells are required to activate B cells into antibody-producing cells
Why would a patient with no thymus lack an effective humoral immune response?
bone marrow; thymus
Lymphocytes are educated within primary lymphoid organs. B cells are educated in the ___ white T cells are educated in the ___
memory cells
The basis of immunity is the presence of
Proteins
In which class of molecules are antibodies classified
Plasma Cells
During clonal selection of B cells, those B cells with complementary membrane receptors to the invading antigen will differentiate into
artificially acquired active
A patient has been immunized against chicken pox. What type of immunity is this?
IgG
Of the following classes of antibodies, which can cross the placenta
Antibodies immobilize antigens and mark them for destruction
Which of the following best describes an antibody's mode of action
Cytotoxic T cells induce cells lysis with perforin, a protein similar to complenents MAC
How is the cytoxic T cell mechanism of action similar to that of complement?
Antigen-presenting cells link anitgenic peptides to MHC proteins in which T cells will attach
How are T cells "introduced" to antigens?
autoimmune disease
When antibodies develop against a a person's own cells, this is an example of a(n)
Major function of the lymphatic system
return of tissue fluid to the cardiovascular system is the______
Peyer's patches
Aggregates of lymphoid nodules located in the wall of the ileum are
Spleen
In addition to its lymphoid function, this organ holds a reservoir of platelets
reticular connective tissue
The structural framework of lymphoid tissue is offered by
Appendix
This structure, attached to the cecum, is in an ideal location to destroy bacteria before it migrates into the large intestine
Capillary
What lymphatic structure absorbs excess tissue fluid?
Lacteal
What lymphatic structure absorbs lipids in the intestine?
Palatine Tonsils
What lymphatic structures trap bacteria in the posterior oral mucosa?
Lymphocytes
Located in the spleen's white pulp?
Capillaries, vessels, trunks, ducts
The flow of lymph through the lymphatic system?
It maintains blood volume and, hence, pressure
Describe the lymphatic system's role in relation to the cardiovascular system?
Thoracic duct
It drains the lymph from the entire left side of the body and the right abdomen and leg.
Lymph Nodes
They have fewer efferent vessels than afferent (incoming) vessels.
A one-way system of vessels beginning with blind-ended lymphatic capillaries
Describe the arrangement of lymphatic vessels?
Thymus
The major lymphoid organ that "trains" T lymphocytes to become immunocompetent?
Lymph Nodes
the principle lymphoid organs in the body?
Tonsils
The lymphoid organs located in the throat that defend against invading bacteria coming in through the mouth and nose
Lymphatics
vessel that transports fluid that leaks from the vascular system back into the blood
CSF
Excess tissue fluid in the brain drains into the
Lymphangitis
red lines under the skin that are sensitive to touch.
lymphedema
Sever localized Edema
Germinal centers
When B lymphocytes are dividing rapidly, the _____ of the lymphoid tissue enlarges
Medullary cords
Where are plasma cells found in the node?
Lymph sinuses
Large lymph capillaries spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers are known as
Spleen
Where is the site of erythrocyte production in the fetus?
White pulp
Areas of lymphocytes suspended by reticular fibers in the spleen are known as:
Sentinel Node
the first lymph node that receives lymph drainage from a body area suspected of cancer.
Lymphatic collecting vessels
What part of the lymphatic system is most closely associated with capillary beds
subclavian veins
All lymph is eventually returned to circulation via the
plasma cells
produces antibodies
macrophage
phagocytic cell
dendritic cell
Captures antigens and presents them to lymph nodes
Reticular cell
Fibroblast-like cell that produces the reticular fiber stroma
Afferent vessel, subcapsular sinus, medulla, efferent vessel
the correct order of lymph flow through the lymph node
cisterna chyli
What is the saclike initial portion of the thoracic duct?
reticular tissue
What is the structural framework of lymphoid organs?
axillae, groin, cervical region
Where are lymph nodes densely clustered?
proliferating B lymphocytes
What is largely found in germinal center within lymph nodes?
Venous Sinuses
The red pulp area of the spleen are sites of what?
Thymus
the lymphoid organ that functions primarily during youth and then begins to atrophy is what?
appendix follicles, the tonsils, and peyer's patches
collections of lymphoid tissue (MALT) that guard mucosal surfaces include what?
MALT
lymphoid tissue found in the mucosa of the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts
Lingual tonsils
lymphoid tissue found in the mucosa of the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts
Inguinal nodes
Lymph collecting or pooling from the lower extremities would first pool where before moving on up?
Plasma proteins, water, and ions
What are the normal components of lymph?
Plasma cells
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by what?
Lipids
Special lymphatic vessels called lacteals absorb dietary WHAT that cannot be absorbed into the capillaries?