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Cheesecake M5D1 - Short
Terms in this set (58)
controls nearly all functions of a computer. Computers rely on it to provide a means for interaction among users, software, and hardware.
The person using the computer/device.
OS Interface and OS Kernel
The mechanical, magnetic, electronic, and electrical components of a computer
Executable code designed to carry out specific tasks on the computer, also referred to as programs or software.
Allows the user to interface with applications system software, and hardware.
The heart of the OS. Manages the interaction between each layer.
File System Management
The os interfaces with data on the hard drive through a file system. A file system defines the way data is named, stored, organized, and accessed on a hard drive.
the containers used to organize files and data for the benefit of usability and retrieval of data. A file is a singular named resource that is used for storing information/data.
A process is an executing instance of an application.
A device is any hardware component or peripheral attached to the computer. The communications path between the os and these devices is made possible through special programs called device drivers.
Only one user can perform a task at any given time
Only one user can perform multiple tasks(programs) at a time.
One or more users can perform one or more tasks each at one time
operates in a networked environment allowing a user to connect to another computer(server) to retrieve information
Provides various services, including email, file sharing, Email Server, Web and printer access, as well as ensuring security, to other across a network
one or more tasks are spread among two or more computers.
Information Assurance (IA)
inherent vulnerabilities posing risks that must be acknowledged and managed
Assurance that information is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals, processes, or devices.
Assurance that no unauthorized modification or destruction of information occurred.
Assurance of reliable access to data and services for authorized users.
Assurance that data delivery is proven to be from a reliable Source.
Assurance of properly verifying a user's credentials.
Discretionary Access Control(DAC)
Commonly referred to as permissions and is implemented using Access Control Lists(ACLs). An ACL will list account permissions to a specific resource.
Mandatory Access Control(MAC)
oss enforce the system's security policy using security labels(e.g., need-to-know).
Role-Based Access Control(RBAC)
Access decisions are based on each account's role or functional position. RBAC is used for processes, not files.
a record of system or user activities
when computer data is copied or archived, usually to a separate location, and for the purpose of data recovery should data loss occur
Built-In (User Account)
Accounts automatically created when the os is installed. At a minimum, every Windows system has an Administrator and Guest account established.
User account with the highest level of privileges and permissions. Users authenticated as Administrator can install software/devices, change system configuration settings, and manage other user accounts. This account cannot be deleted
Intended for temporary access when an individual user account does not exist. Guest account abilities are greatly limited, but a password is typically not required to access the system. This account cannot be deleted.
Local (User Account)
Account authenticated by the local machine, Local account credentials are maintained in a local database called the Security Accounts Manager(SAM).
Domain (User Account)
Account authenticated by a domain controller. A domain controller is a centralized server in a Windows network that stores domain account credentials in a database called Active Directory
each windows system is considered standalone with regards to authentication
a collection of computers sharing common configurations, resources, and security principles
accounts that may contain user accounts, computer accounts, and even other group accounts. used to logically with the ultimate goal of assigning permissions to system resources such as files and directories.
The Documents and settings folder
contains a subdirectory for each user who has logged on to the system. These subdirectories contain profiles, which are a collection of folders containing user personal data and preferences.
when a user logs on to a system for the first time and/or does not have a profile, the settings contained in the ___________ user(s) profile are used to create the user's profile.
The _____________ user(s) profile is used to add settings and programs that affect all users that log on to the system.
System Root Folder
contains all OS files.
contains most of the built-in Windows system files, programs, and commands.
may be defined as any characteristic of a file or directory
on/off type features
may have varying values, e.g., name, size, times, dates, etc.
Allows backup programs to know which files to backup.
Protects the file from being over-written or modified.
Compressed file or directory(NTFS only).
Hidden from standard directory listings and common users.
Encrypted file or directory(NTFs only).
System file, generally protected from common user access.
the mechanism by which a system securely identifies a user.
the mechanism by which a system determines the level of access an authenticated user has to system resources
New Technology File System(NTFS)
provides the capability of assigning file and directory permissions using Discretionary Access Control Lists(DACL). Not all file systems, like File Allocation Table(FAT), provide this capability.
Permits viewing and listing of files and subfolders
Permits viewing file contents
Permits adding of files and subfolders
Permits writing to a file
Read & Execute
Permits viewing and listing of files and subfolders as well as filexecution; inherited by files and folders
Permits viewing file contents and file execution
List Folder Contents
Permits viewing a listing of filesand subfolders; inherited by folders only
Permits reading and writing of files and subfolders; allows deletion of the folder
Permits reading and writing of the file; allows deletion of the file
Permits reading, writing, changing of permissions, and deleting of files ad subfolders
Permits reading, writing, changing of permissions, and deleting of the file
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