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Jean le Rond DÁlembert

coeditor of the Encyclopedie.


Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral - the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.


Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.


Comfortable members of the 3rd estate. Basically middle class, wanted the privileges of the nobility and upper clergy.

Revolutionary Calender

Created by the National Convention, it established after the French Revolution - day one was the first day of the French Republic.

Committee of Public Safety

Established and led by Robespierre, fixed bread prices and nationalized some businesses. Basically secret police and also controlled the war effort. Instigated the Reign of Terror.

Conspiracy of Equals

Led by "Gracchus" Babeuf an attempt to renew violent rebellion after the Thermidore reaction - communistic nature.


Form of government which followed the directory - established by Napoleon - ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.

National Convention

The third estate of the Estates General - broke the Estates because they wanted the Estates to sit as a committee and not as segregated groups.


Led the Mountains with Robespierre - also executed with Robespierre.


Napoleon's painter - painted the famous portrait of Napoleon's coronation.

Declaration of the Rights of Man

Written by the National Convention - declared all men could do anything as long as it did not harm others.


Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.


Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment - explained many aspects of society.

Estates General

Not called since 1614 - finally called by Louis XVI at the advice of his financial ,minister - demanded control over the King's finances - he refused and dismissed them - sat as three segregated groups.


Tax on salt during pre-revolutionary France - included in the Estate's list of grievances.


One of the two halves of the divided National Convention.

Great Fear

Followed the storming of the Bastille - people were scared of outlaws and reprisals - fanned of rebellion.


Fast and relatively humane - used for mass executions.


Created by Napoleon - kept watch over their own area of France - allowed Napoleon not to have to worry about petty problems.

Levee en Masse

Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.

Louis XVI

Kings of France - executed for treason by the National Convention - absolute monarch - husband of Marie Antoinette.

Marie Antoinette

Louis XVI's wife - executed.


Member of the National Assembly - led the Mountains - began and led the Committee of Public Safety - began the Reign of Terror.

Sans - culottes

Petty laborers and laboring poor = wore pants not knee breeches - became a major political group in revolutionary France.

Tennis Court Oaths

Taken by the National Assembly - stated that they would not disband had made a new constitution. Met here because they were unable to go to their meeting place.

First Estate


Second Estate


Third Estate

Artisans etc. Everyone not in the First of Second Estate.

Thermidorean Reaction

A reaction against the violence of the Reign of Terror. Robespierre was executed.

Ancien Regime

The old order before the Revolution in France.


The killing of the king.


Site of palace outside Paris. Women marched there to demand action from Louis XVI.

Mary Wollstonecraft

Wrote Vindication of the Rights of Man and A Vindication of the Rights of Women.

Berlin Decree

1806 - issued by Napoleon, instituted the Continental System, in the response to British Blockade of commercial ports under French control.

Joseph Bonaparte

Napoleon's brother, made king of Spain but unable to control the Spanish which led to the costly Peninsula War.

Confederation of the Rhine

League of German States organized by Napoleon in 1813 after defeating the Austrians at Austerlitz. The league collapsed after Napoleon's defeat in Russia.

Continental System

(1806-12) French economic plan to cripple Britain. Russia's refusal to conform led to the Russian campaign.

The Grand Army

Combined French armies under Napoleon. Virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign.


(1814-24) tried to issue a Constitutional Charter which accepted many revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties.

Napoleonic Code

Passed by Napoleon. Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablishing the "family monarchy". Modified after Napoleon's defeat.

Peninsula War

France was forced to invade Spain after the failure of Joseph Bonaparte. Very costly for Napoleon. The Duke of Wellington helped the Spanish.


A vote of the people.

Rosetta Stone

Found by one of Napoleon's officers during the Egyptian campaign. Allowed people to decipher hieroglyphics.


French representative at the Congress of Vienna and limited the demands of other countries upon the French.

Saint Helena

South Atlantic island. Napoleon's final home after the Battle of Waterloo.


(October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.


Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of liberal nationalism throughout Europe.


British representative.

The Hundred Days

The time from Napoleon's return from exile on Elba to defeat at Waterloo.

Sir Richard Arkwright

Invented water frame at almost the same time as the spinning jenny was invented.

Jeremy Bentham

Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote Principles of Morals and Legislation.

Edmund Cartwright

Inventor of the modern power loom.


Agitation against poor laws - working class discontent.

Combination Acts

1799 and 1800 - made trade unionism illegal.

The Communist Manifesto

Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles - basis of Socialism.

Corn Laws

1815 tariff on imported grain to protect domestic producers. Never worked well.

Henry Cort

Refined pig iron-puddling furnace - heavy rolling mills.

Benjamin Disraeli

British Conservative - extended vote to all middle class male workers, needed to broaden aristocratic voter base.

Friedrich Engles

Condition of Working Class in England - society's problems caused by capitalism and competition. Colleague of Karl Marx.

Factory Act 1833

Created factory workday for children between 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9 - factory owners established schools. Destroyed family unit.

Charles Fourier

French social theorist - criticized capitalism - wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements.

James Hargreaves

About 1705 invented spinning jenny.


New inventions, cotton and iron - changed small businesses beyond all recognition.

John Kay

Inventor of flying shuttle, (1733).

Laissez-faire capitalism

Minimal governmental interference in the economic affairs. Adam Smith and Francois Quesnay.

Karl Marx

German - father of socialism - emancipation of women - Communist Manifesto

Thomas Newcomen

1705 invented steam engine that used coal, very inefficient.

Robert Owen

Scottish spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony.

Henry Palmerston

Hawkish English Foreign Minister during revolutions of 1848.

A People's Charter

Draft of reform Bill which called for universal suffrage payment of members of Parliament and annual elections - 6 main points.

Poor Law

1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable to employers.

First Reform Bill

1832, Modified the old political system by easing voting qualifications (but still not easy to qualify!). Abolished some smaller boroughs.

Second Reform Bill

1867, Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters.


Political party in Britain controlled by aristocracy.

Utopian Socialism

Ideal society based on socialist ideals - Louis Blanc and Charles Fourier.

James Watt

Added a condenser to Newcomen's steam engine to make it more efficient. Led to steam becoming a viable source of power.


British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests.

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