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Security Chapter 5 Crypto
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Terms in this set (50)
Cryptography that can be applied to entire disks.
whole disk encryption
A derivation of the Blowfish algorithm that is considered to be strong.
Twofish
A chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides
cryptographic services.
Trusted Platform Module (TPM)
A symmetric cipher that was designed to replace DES.
Triple Data Encryption Standard (3DES)
Encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message.
symmetric cryptographic algorithm
An algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with one character.
stream cipher
Hiding the existence of data within another type of file
.steganography
A cryptographic function that applies a process on the input that has
been padded with additional characters until all characters are used.
sponge function
A secure hash algorithm that creates more secure hash
values than Message Digest (MD) algorithms.
Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)
The most common asymmetric cryptography algorithm.
RSA
An RC stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length.
RC4
A hash algorithm that
uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and then combines the result at the end of the process.
RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD
A type of asymmetric cryptography that attempts to use the unusual and unique behavior of microscopic objects to enable users to securely develop and share keys.
quantum cryptography
Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys.
public key cryptography
An asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected.
public key
Cryptographic algorithms that use a single key to encrypt and
decrypt a message.
private key cryptography
An asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected.
private key
A commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt files
and messages.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
Cleartext data that is to be encrypted and decrypted by a cryptographic algorithm.
plaintext
Public key systems that generate random public keys that are
different for each session.
perfect forward secrecy
Exchanging secure information outside the normal communication channels.
out-of-band
Combining plaintext with a random key to create ciphertext that cannot be broken mathematically.
one-time pad (OTP)
The process of proving that a user performed an action.
non-repudiation
The current version of MD.
Message Digest 5 (MD5)
A common hash algorithm with several different versions.
Message Digest (MD)
The process of sending and receiving secure cryptographic keys
key exchange
A mathematical value entered into a cryptographic algorithm to produce encrypted data.
key
Exchanging secure information within normal communication channels.
in-band
A hash function that is applied to both the key and the message.
Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC)
An algorithm that creates a unique digital fingerprint.
hash
A secure cryptographic processor.
Hardware Security Module (HSM)
Free and open-source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt data.
GNU Privacy Guard (GPG)
A temporary key that is used only once before it is discarded.
ephemeral key
The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext.
encryption
A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses elliptic curve cryptography instead of prime numbers in its computation.
Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH)
An algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime
numbers to compute keys.
elliptic curve cryptography (ECC)
An electronic verification of the sender.
digital signature
The unique digital fingerprint created by a one-way hash algorithm.
digest
A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses different keys.
Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (DHE)
A key exchange that requires all parties to agree upon a large prime number and related integer so that the same key can be separately created.
Diffie-Hellman (DH)
The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext.
decryption
A symmetric block cipher that uses a 56-bit key and
encrypts data in 64-bit blocks.
Data Encryption Standard (DES)
The science of transforming information into a secure form so that unauthorized persons cannot access it.
cryptography
Unencrypted data.
cleartext
Data that has been encrypted.
ciphertext
A block cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits.
Blowfish
A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time.
block cipher
Cryptography that uses two mathematically related
keys.
asymmetric cryptographic algorithm
Procedures based on a mathematical formula used to encrypt and decrypt the data.
algorithm
A symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES.
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
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