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Chemistry Final: Module 2 Exam

STUDY
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Which one of the following is not one of the postulates of Dalton's atomic theory?
Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Which statement below correctly describes the responses of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation to
an electric field?
Alpha and beta are deflected in opposite directions, while gamma shows no response
The charge on an electron was determined in the __________.
Millikan oil drop experiment
In the Rutherford nuclear-atom model, __________.
the heavy subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, reside in the nucleus
In the absence of magnetic or electric fields, cathode rays __________.
travel in straight lines
Of the following, the smallest and lightest subatomic particle is the __________.
electron
All atoms of a given element have the same __________.
number of protons
There are __________ electrons, __________ protons, and __________ neutrons in an atom of
132
54Xe.
54, 54, 78
An atom of the most common isotope of gold, 197Au, has __________ protons, __________
neutrons, and __________ electrons
79, 118, 79
Which pair of atoms constitutes a pair of isotopes of the same element?
14
6 X
12
6 X
The atomic mass unit is presently based on assigning an exact integral mass (in amu) to an isotope
of __________.
carbon
The element X has three naturally occurring isotopes. The masses (amu) and % abundances of the
isotopes are given in the table below. The average atomic mass of the element is __________ amu
220.4
The average atomic weight of copper, which has two naturally occurring isotopes, is 63.5. One of
the isotopes has an atomic weight of 62.9 amu and constitutes 69.1% of the copper isotopes. The
other isotope has an abundance of 30.9%. The atomic weight (amu) of the second isotope is
__________ amu
64.8
In the periodic table, the elements are arranged in __________.
order of increasing atomic number
Which pair of elements would you expect to exhibit the greatest similarity in their physical and
chemical properties?
Ca, Sr
The elements in groups 1A, 6A, and 7A are called, __________, respectively.
alkali metals, chalcogens, and halogens
Which one of the following does not occur as diatomic molecules in elemental form?
sulfur
Which one of the following molecular formulas is also an empirical formula?
C2H6SO
Of the choices below, which one is not an ionic compound?
PCl5
Of the following, __________ contains the greatest number of electrons.
P3-
Which species is an isotope of 39Cl?
36Cl-
There are __________ protons, __________ neutrons, and __________ electrons in 131I-.
53, 78, and 54
Which of the following compounds would you expect to be ionic?
CaO
Which pair of elements is most apt to form a molecular compound with each other?
sulfur, fluorine
Which species below is the nitride ion?
N 3-
) Aluminum reacts with a certain nonmetallic element to form a compound with the general
formula Al2X3. Element X must be from Group __________ of the Periodic Table of Elements.
6A
The charge on the copper ion in the salt CuO is __________.
+2
Which one of the following is the formula of hydrochloric acid?
HCl
Which one of the following compounds is chromium(III) oxide?
Cr2O3
The correct name for MgF2 is __________.
magnesium fluoride
The formula for the compound formed between aluminum ions and phosphate ions is __________.
AlPO4
Which metal does not form cations of differing charges?
Na
The wavelength of light emitted from a traffic light having a frequency of 5.75 x 1014 Hz is
__________.
522 nm
Of the following, __________ radiation has the shortest wavelength
X-ray
Of the following transitions in the Bohr hydrogen atom, the __________ transition results in the
emission of the highest-energy photon.
n = 6 → n = 1
In the Bohr model of the atom, __________.
electron energies are quantized
According to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, it is impossible to know precisely both the
position and the __________ of an electron
momentum
All of the orbitals in a given subshell have the same value of the __________ quantum number.
A and B
magnetic and principal
Which one of the following is not a valid value for the magnetic quantum number of an electron in
a 5d subshell?
3
An electron cannot have the quantum numbers n = __________, l = __________, ml = __________.
1, 1, 1
Which one of the following is an incorrect subshell notation?
2d
Which quantum number determines the energy of an electron in a hydrogen atom?
n
Which quantum numbers must be the same for the orbitals that they designate to be degenerate in
a one-electron system (such as hydrogen)?
n only
In a px orbital, the subscript x denotes the __________ of the electron
axis along which the orbital is aligned
At maximum, an f-subshell can hold __________ electrons, a d-subshell can hold __________
electrons, and a p-subshell can hold __________ electrons.
14, 10, 6
Which one of the following orbitals can hold two electrons?
all of the above
4dxy,2px,3s
The ground-state electron configuration of the element __________ is [Kr]5s14d5.
Mo
Which one of the following configurations depicts an excited oxygen atom?
1s2 2s2 2p2 3s2
The ground state configuration of fluorine is __________.
[He]2s2 2p5
Which electron configuration represents a violation of the Pauli exclusion principle?
1s: ^ v
2s: ^ ^
2p: ^
Which one of the following is the correct electron configuration for a ground-state nitrogen atom?
1s: ^ v
2s: ^ v
2p: ^ ^ ^
Which electron configuration denotes an atom in its ground state?
1s: ^ v
2s: ^ v
2p: ^ _(space)_ ^
Which electron configuration represents a violation of Hund's rule for an atom in its ground state?
1s: ^ v
2s: ^ v
2p: ^ v
The lowest orbital energy is reached when the number of electrons with the same spin is
maximized. This statement describes __________.
Hund's rule
The atomic radius of main-group elements generally increases down a group because __________.
the principal quantum number of the valence orbitals increases
Of the following, which gives the correct order for atomic radius for Mg, Na, P, Si and Ar?
Na > Mg > Si > P > Ar
__________ is isoelectronic with argon and __________ is isoelectronic with neon.
Cl-, F-
Of the choices below, which gives the order for first ionization energies?
Ar > Cl > S > Si > Al
__________ have the lowest first ionization energies of the groups listed.
Alkali metals
Which equation correctly represents the first ionization of aluminum?
Al (g) → Al+ (g) + e-
Which of the following correctly represents the second ionization of phosphorus?
P+ (g) → P2+ (g) + e-
Which ion below has the largest radius?
Br-
Of the following elements, __________ has the most negative electron affinity.
Cl
Which equation correctly represents the electron affinity of calcium?
Ca (g) + e- → Ca- (g)
In the generation of most anions, the energy change (kJ/mol) that _______ an electron is ________.
adds, negative
Of the elements below, __________ is the most metallic.
K
Transition metals within a period differ mainly in the number of ________ electrons.
d
All of the following are ionic compounds except __________.
SiO2
In nature, the noble gases exist as
monatomic gaseous atoms
Which one of the following is correct?
νλ = c
When electrons are removed from a lithium atom they are removed first from which
orbital?
2s1
n added electron to the element bromine goes into which orbital?
4p
The largest principal quantum number in the ground state electron configuration of
francium is __________.
7
The electron configuration of the valence electrons of an atom in its ground state is ns2n
p3. This atom is a group __________ element.
5A
Which noble gas has the highest first ionization energy?
Helium
All of the subshells in a given shell have the same energy in the hydrogen atom. In a many-electron atom, the
subshells in a given shell do not have the same energy. Why?
Hydrogen atoms have only one electron. Therefore, in a hydrogen atom, the energy of orbitals depends only on n. In
many-electron atoms, electron-electron repulsion causes the energies of subshells in a given shell to differ.
List seven nonmetals that exist as diatomic molecules in their elemental forms
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine