146 terms

absolute value

The distance of a number from zero on the number line. Absolute value is always positive.

acute triangle

A triangle with no angle measuring 90o or more.

addend

Any number being added.

Additive Identity Property of 0

Adding zero to a number gives a sum identical to the given number.

additive inverses

Two numbers whose sum is 0 are additive inverses of one another.

algebraic expression

A group of numbers, symbols, and variables that express an operation or a series of operations.

algorithm

A step-by-step method for computing.

altitude

The perpendicular distance from a vertex to the opposite side of a plane figure.

area

The measure, in square units, of the interior region of a 2-dimensional figure or the surface of a 3-dimensional figure.

Associative Property of Addition

The sum stays the same when the grouping of addends is changed.

Associative Property of Multiplication

The product stays the same when the grouping of factors is changed.

attribute

A characteristic. e.g. size, shape or color

axis

A reference line from which distances or angles are measured in a coordinate grid.

base of a polygon

The side of a polygon that is perpendicular to the altitude or height.

box plot

A diagram that shows the five number summary of a distribution.

cluster

A group of the same or similar elements gathered or occurring closely together on a graph.

coefficient

A numerical factor in a term of an algebraic expression.

common denominator

For two or more fractions, a common denominator is a common multiple of the denominators.

common factor

Any common factor of two or more numbers.

common multiple

Any common multiple of two or more numbers.

Commutative Property of Addition

The sum stays the same when the order of the addends is changed.

Commutative Property of Multiplication

The product stays the same when the order of the factors is changed.

compose

To put together, as in numbers or shapes.

constant

A number with a value that is always the same.

constant speed

Movement at a fixed (constant) distance per unit of time.

coordinate pair

A pair of numbers that gives the coordinates of a point on a grid in this order (horizontal coordinate, vertical coordinate). Also known as an ordered pair.

coordinate plane

A 2-dimensional system in which the coordinates of a point are its distances from two intersecting, usually perpendicular, straight lines called axes. (Also called coordinate grid or coordinate system.)

coordinate system

Also known as a coordinate grid. A 2-dimensional system in which the coordinates of a point are its distances from two intersecting, usually perpendicular, straight lines called axes.

coordinates

An ordered pair of numbers that identify a point on a coordinate plane.

cube

A rectangular solid having six congruent square faces.

customary system

A system of measurement used in the U.S. The system includes units for measuring length, capacity, and weight.

data

Information, especially numerical information. Usually organized for analysis.

decompose

To separate into components or basic elements.

denominator

The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells the number of equal parts into which a whole is divided.

dependent variable

In a function, a variable whose value is determined by the value of the related independent variable.

difference

The amount that remains after one quantity is subtracted from another.

distribution

A table that shows how many there are of each type of data.

Distributive Property

a × (b - c) = (a × b) -(a × c), where a, b, and c stand for any real numbers.

dividend

A quantity to be divided.

divisor

The quantity by which another quantity is to be divided.

dot plot

Also known as a line plot. A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line.

double number line diagram

A graphic diagram that shows a proportional relationship between two quantities.

equation

A statement that two mathematical expressions are equal.

equilateral triangle

A triangle whose sides are all the same length.

equivalent

Naming the same number.

equivalent ratio

If two ratios have the same value when simplified, then they are called equivalent ratios.

evaluate

To find the value of a mathematical expression.

exponent

The number that tells how many equal factors there are.

expression

A variable or combination of variables, numbers, and symbols that represents a mathematical relationship.

factor

An integer that divides evenly into another.

first quartile

The first quartile is the middle (the median) of the lower half of the data on a box plot. One-fourth of the data lies below the first quartile and three- fourths lies above. Also known as Q1.

formula

A general mathematical statement or rule.

fraction

A way of representing part of a whole or part of a group by telling the number of equal parts in the whole and the number of parts you are describing.

gap

A place on a graph where no data values are present.

graph

A pictorial device used to show a numerical relationship.

greater than

Greater than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is larger than the second number.

greatest common factor

GCF. The largest factor of two or more numbers.

height

The perpendicular distance from a vertex to the opposite side of a plane figure.

histogram

A bar graph in which the labels for the bars are numerical intervals.

improper fraction

A fraction with a numerator greater than (or equal to) its denominator.

independent variable

A variable in a mathematical equation whose value determines that of a dependent variable.

inequality

A mathematical sentence that compares two unequal expressions using one of the symbols <, >, ≤, ≥, or ≠.

infinite

Having no boundaries or limits.

integers

The set of whole numbers and their opposites.

interquartile range

The difference between the upper quartile and the lower quartile.

isosceles triangle

A triangle that has at least two congruent sides.

least common multiple

LCM. The smallest common multiple of a set of two or more numbers.

less than

Less than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is smaller than the second number.

line plot

Also known as a dot plot. A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line.

lower extreme

The smallest or least number out of a data set, usually farther away from interquartile range than other data in set. (Also known as minimum.)

magnitude

Size; a property by which something can be compared as larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.

maximum

The largest amount; the greatest number in a data set.

mean

The sum of a set of numbers divided by the number of elements in the set. (A type of average)

mean absolute deviation

In statistics, the absolute deviation of an element of a data set is the absolute difference between that element and a given point.

measure of center

An average; a single value that is used to represent a collection of data. Three commonly used types of averages are mode, median, and mean. (Also called measures of central tendency or measures of average.)

measure of variation

A measure of how much a collection of data is spread out. Commonly used types include range and quartiles. (Also known as spread or dispersion.)

median

The middle number of a set of numbers when the numbers are arranged from least to greatest, or the mean of two middle numbers when the set has two middle numbers.

metric system

A system of measurement based on tens. The basic unit of capacity is the liter. The basic unit of length is the meter. The basic unit of mass is the gram.

minimum

The smallest amount; the smallest number in a data set.

minuend

In subtraction, the minuend is the number you subtract from.

mixed number

A number with an integer and a fraction part.

multiple

The product of a whole number and any other whole number.

Multiplicative Identity Property of 1

The product of any number and 1 is equal to the original number.

multiplicative inverses

Two numbers whose product is 1. Also called reciprocals.

negative numbers

Numbers less than 0.

net

A 2-dimensional shape that can be folded into a 3-dimensional figure is a net of that figure. (Also called a network.)

number line

A diagram that represents numbers as points on a line.

numerator

The number or expression written above the line in a fraction.

numerical expression

A mathematical statement including numbers and operations.

obtuse triangle

A triangle that contains one angle with a measure greater than 90o (obtuse angle) and two acute angles.

opposite

Having a different sign but the same numeral.

Order of Operations

Rules describing what sequence to use in evaluating expressions.

ordered pair

A pair of numbers that gives the coordinates of a point on a grid in this order (horizontal coordinate, vertical coordinate). Also known as a coordinate pair.

origin

The intersection of the x- and y-axes in a coordinate plane, described by the ordered pair (0, 0).

outlier

A number in a set of data that is much larger or smaller than most of the other numbers in the set.

percent

A special ratio that compares a number to 100 using the symbol %.

plot

To place points on a graph or coordinate plane.

polygon

A closed figure formed from line segments that meet only at their endpoints.

positive numbers

Numbers that are greater than zero.

prism

A 3-dimensional figure that has two congruent and parallel faces that are polygons. The remaining faces are parallelograms.

product

The result of multiplication.

proportion

An equation showing that two ratios are equivalent.

pyramid

A polyhedron whose base is a polygon and whose other faces are triangles that share a common vertex.

quadrants

The four sections of a coordinate grid that are separated by the axes.

quadrilateral

A four-sided polygon.

quantity

An amount.

quotient

The result of the division of one quantity by another.

range

The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of numbers.

rate

A ratio comparing two different units.

ratio

A comparison of two numbers using division.

rational number

A number that can be expressed as a ratio of two integers.

reciprocals

Two numbers whose product is 1. Also called multiplicative inverses.

rectangle

A quadrilateral with two pairs of congruent, parallel sides and four right angles.

rectangular pyramid

A polyhedron whose base is a rectangle and whose other faces are triangles that share a common vertex.

rectangular prism

A prism with six rectangular faces.

right triangle

A triangle that has one 90o angle.

scalene triangle

A triangle that has no congruent sides.

signed number

Positive or negative number.

solid figure

A geometric figure with 3 dimensions.

spread

A measure of how much a collection of data is spread out. Commonly used types include range and quartiles. (Also known as measures of variation or dispersion.)

square-based pyramid

A polyhedron whose base is a square and whose other faces are triangles that share a common vertex.

statistical variability

A variability or spread in a variable or a probability distribution. Common examples of measures of statistical dispersion are the variance, standard deviation, and interquartile range.

statistics

The science of collecting, organizing, representing, and interpreting data.

substitution

The replacement of the letters in an algebraic expression with known values.

subtrahend

In subtraction, the subtrahend is the number being subtracted.

sum

The result of addition.

surface area

The total area of the faces (including the bases) and curved surfaces of a solid figure.

table

An organized way to list data. Tables usually have rows and columns of data.

tape diagram

A drawing that looks like a segment of tape, used to illustrate number relationships. Also known as a strip diagram, bar model, fraction strip, or length model.

term

A number, variable, product, or quotient in an expression. A term is not a sum or difference.

third quartile

The third quartile is the middle (the median) of the upper half of the data on a box plot. One-fourth of the data lies above the third quartile and three- fourths lies below. Also known as Q3.

three- dimensional

3-D. Existing in 3 dimensions; having length, width, and height.

triangular prism

A prism with three rectangular faces and two triangular bases where the lateral edge is perpendicular to the plane of the base.

triangular pyramid

A pyramid with a triangular base.

unit cube

A precisely fixed quantity used to measure volume.

unit rate

A rate with a denominator of 1.

upper extreme

The greatest or largest number out of a data set, usually farther away from interquartile range than other data in set. (Also known as maximum.)

value

The amount something is worth.

variable

A quantity that changes or can have different values. A symbol, usually a letter, that can stand for a variable quantity.

vertex

The point at which two line segments, lines, or rays meet to form an angle.

volume

The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure.

whole numbers

Any of the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on.

x-axis

In a Cartesian grid, the horizontal axis.

x-coordinate

In an ordered pair, the value that is always written first.

y-axis

In a Cartesian grid, the vertical axis.

y-coordinate

In an ordered pair, the value that is always written second.