Upgrade to remove ads
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE HUMAN BODY
Terms in this set (212)
is the study of the form and structure of an organism, such as the names and locations of the bones, muscle, and organs.
is the study of the functions (how and why something works) of these structures. Examples include how bones and muscles produce movement, how organs assist in digestion, and how nerve impulses from the brain trigger the eyelids to blink.
is the study of why diseases occur and how the body changes in function in reaction to the diseases. When studying pathophysiology, there are other terms that are used to describe a complete picture of the disease process and related information.
Study of the causes of diseases. Diseases have a variety of causes. Examples include bacteria, viruses, hazardous materials and personal habits.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Signs and symptoms (S/S) are usually used as one phrase but actually have separate meanings, sign are OBJECTIVE evidence of an illness. This means that the health care professional can observe them, signs are objective and include patient behaviors, visible marks on the body, and test results. Symptoms are SUBJECTIVE. They cannot be directly observed by the health care professional but are reported by the patient.
Test performed to determine the DIAGNOSIS (name of the disease or syndrome). To arrive at a diagnosis, the signs and symptoms are evaluated by taking a thorough patient history; doing a physical exam, and ordering laboratory tests, X-rays, or other special tests, an accurate diagnosis is necessary to determine the correct treatment and predict the outcome of the problem.
Medications or procedures used to control or cure the disease, common treatments include surgery, exercise, and special diets.
Prediction of the possible outcome of the disease and potential for recovery.
Behaviors that promote health and prevent disease.
is experienced when the body maintains homeostasis.
is the tendency of a cell or the whole organism to maintain a state of balance.
occurs when one or more of the body's control systems lose the ability to maintain homeostasis.
Genetics determines one's inherited characteristics, such as eye and hair color, height, and skin tone. Also, related to its impact on medical disorders that can be passed from parent to child.
When two or more organs combine to perform a major body function.
protects the body from hazards, prevents fluid loss, and helps control temperature.
Is composed of the bones that provide a framework that gives shape to the body,
provides places to which muscles can attach to produce movement., protects the internal organs, stores minerals, manufactures blood cells.
Longer than they are wide (arms: humerus, radius, ulna; legs: femur, tibia, fibula; fingers and toes: metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges)
Similar in length and width (bones of the wrist and ankles, which are called carpals and tarsals, respectively).
Two layers with space between them (cranium, ribs, shoulders blade [scapula], breastbone [sternum], pelvis).
Those that do not fit into the other categories (spinal column [vertebrae], facial bones, patella).
LONG BONE STRUCTURE
Medullary cavity (canal), Diaphysis, Epiphyses, Periosteum, Red Marrow, Cartilage.
MEDULLARY CAVITY (CANAL)
Center cavity containing yellow marrow (primarily fat cells); covered by a layer called ENDOSTEUM
Portion that runs between the ends of the bone; also called the "shaft."
Ends on bone (proximal and distal).
White, fibrous layer that covers the outside of bone; contains blood, lymph vessels, and nerves. Bone growth, repair, and nutrition occur in the periosteum. It also serves as an attachment for muscles, tendons,and ligaments.
Manufactures the red blood cells (RBCs), which carry oxygen, and the white blood cells (WBCs), which protect the body from infections. Red bone marrow is also found in other types of bones such as ribs (flat) and vertebrae (Irregular).
Elastic connective tissue that covers the end of the bones and functions as a cushion between bones. Cartilage also covers the surface of joints and forms the flexible parts of the nose.
THE AXIAL AND THE APPENDICULAR SKELETONS ARE:
The skeletal system divided into two major parts.
THE AXIAL SKELETON INCLUDES THE BONES OF THE:
Skull, Inner ear, Hyoid (U-shaped bone lying at base of tongue), Spinal column, Ribs, Sternum (breastbone).
THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON INCLUDES THE BONES OF THE:
Shoulders, Arms, Hands, Pelvis, Legs, Feet.
The 206 bones in the adult can be divided as:
*HEAD: 29 bones (22 in the cranium, 3 in each inner ear, and 1 hyoid).
*TRUNK: 51 bones (26 vertebrae in spine, 24 ribs, and 1 sternum).
*UPPER EXTREMITIES: 64 bones in shoulders, arms, wrists, and hands.
*LOWER EXTREMITIES: 62 bones in pelvis, legs, ankle, and feet.
is composed of the skull and facial bones.
The skull may feel smooth to the touch like one continuous bone, but it actually consists of eight bones:
*TEMPORAL (2): Shapes area around ears.
*OCCIPITAL (1): Shapes the base and back of the head.
*PARIETAL (2): Shapes the top and sides of head.
*FRONTAL (1): Shapes the forehead.
*SPHENOID (1): "Bat-shaped" bone that forms part of the cranial floor that acts as a bridge between the cranial and facial bones, and braces the sides of the skull.
*ETHMOID (1): Located between the eyes and anterior to the sphenoid bone that forms part of the cranial floor, medial surface of the orbit of eyes and the roof and sides of the nasal cavity.
*NASAL (5): Shape the nose.
*LACRIMAL (2): Located in the inner corner of the eye (tear duct).
*MAXILLA (2): Shapes the upper jaw.
*ZYGOMATIC (2): Shapes the cheeks.
*MANDIBLE (1): Shape the lower jaw (only movable bone in the face).
*PALATINE (2): Shapes the hard palate of the mouth.
Areas where the cranial bones have joined together (e.g., lambdoidal, squamous, and coronal). This joining does not occur until after birth, usually by the end of the second year. Called FONTANELLES, or "SOFT SPOTS," they allow the skull to expand and accommodate the growing brain.
Air cavity within a bone that acts as a resonating chamber for voice quality.
An opening in the bone for blood vessels and nerves to pass through (e.g., mental foramen).
The upper extremities include the shoulder girdle, arms, wrists and hands
Two curved CLAVICLES (shoulder bones) and the two triangular SCAPULAE (Shoulder blades).
Long bone of the upper arm is the HUMERUS, which is connected to the scapula by muscles and ligaments. The two long bones of the forearm are the RADIUS (runs up thumb side) and ULNA (proximal end forms the elbow that connects to the humerus).
WRIST AND HAND
Eight bones in the wrist (carpals) form two rows of bones. The hands have five METACARPAL bones (palm), and the five fingers have fourteen PHALANGES (each finger has three except for the thumb, which has two). The hand, with its many bones, is truly an engineering marvel.
include the pelvic (hip) girdle, legs, ankles, and feet.
Serves as an area of attachment for the leg and to protect the internal organs of the lower abdomen. The girdle starts out as three bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis), which allows for growth. In adulthood these fuse to form the girdle. The bones fuse on the posterior side with the sacrum and in front by forming the SYMPHYSIS PUBIS. The pelvis and pelvic inlet of the female are wider than that of the male to allow for childbirth.
Long bone of the upper leg (thigh) is the FEMUR; the femur is the longest bone in the body and fits into a cavity of the ilium known as the ACETABULUM. The two long bones of the calf are the FIBULA and TIBIA. The PATELLA (Kneecap) is found in front of the knee joint.
ANKLE AND FOOT
Seven bones in the ankle (tarsals) provide a connection between the foot and leg bones. The foot has five METATARSAL bones (forming the arch of foot), and the five toes have fourteen PHALANGES (each toe has three except for the big toe, which has two).
JOINTS OR ARTICULATION
is the connection between bones that allows for movement, joints are covered by a synovial membrane that produces a lubricating fluid called SYNOVIAL FLUID. This enables them to move freely and without discomfort.
Are fibrous connective tissues that connect one bone to another and create the stability of the joint.
is a group of diseases involving inflammation of the joints. Examples include RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (synovial membranes thicken), GOUTARTHRITIS (uric acid crystal build up in joints), and DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE, also knowN as OSTEOARTHRITIS (cartilage in the joints softens).
is a common complaint that has many causes. The intervertebral disks sometimes press against nerves. Pain that runs down the leg is usually due to pressure on the sciatic nerve.
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME
is caused by pressure on a nerve in the wrist as a result of repetitive movement or trauma, this diagnosis has become quite common with the increased use of computers.
EXCESSIVE CURVATURE OF THE SPINE CAN OCCUR IN THREE DIRECTIONS:
1. SCOLIOSIS is a lateral (to the side) curvature.
2. LORDOSIS, sometime referred to as "swayback," is an inward curvature of the lumbar area.
3. KYPHOSIS, sometimes referred to as "hunchback," is rounded bowing of the thoracic area.
(Broken bones) usually occur from some external injury to the body but can also occur without injury if the bone is thin and brittle as a result of a disease (e.g., osteoporosis, Paget's disease). The fracture may be closed (skin not broken) or open (bone breaks through skin).
THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FRACTURES ARE:
Simple, Compound (open), Incomplete (greenstick), Comminuted, Spiral (Caused by twisting motion).
is an infection of the bone.
is a weakening of the bones caused by the loss of calcium in the bones.
Movement away from the median plane of the body.
Movement toward the median plane of the body.
Movement in a circular direction.
Straighten (increase the angle between the bones forming a joint).
To bend (decrease the angle between the bones forming a joint).
Turning the hand so the palm faces downward or backward (also refers to lying facedown).
Motion around a central axis.
Turning the palm or foot upward (also refers to lying face up).
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM CONSISTS
more than 600 muscles that produce movement, provide support, and produce heat to maintain body temperature.
Located only in the heart. The pumping contractions and relaxations of the muscle occur with no conscious effort on the part of the individual (involuntary control).
Attached to the bones these require conscious effort to function (voluntary control). They are referred to as striated because they have alternating light and dark bands circling the muscle fibers. Any movement that is self-generated involves skeletal muscles (walking, chewing, talking).
Located in the walls of internal organs (e.g., stomach, intestines, uterus, and blood vessels). Their movement is involuntary, they are nonstriated (no markings), and controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
A circular muscle that controls the opening and closing of a passageway, such as in the digestive (food passing into and out of the stomach) and urinary (urine passing out of the bladder) system.
occur when the muscle stays in a shortened position. If the joint is not moved regularly, it will lose its flexibility as ligaments and tendons shorten.
is caused by CLOSTRIDIUM bacteria, which kills muscle tissue.
are sudden and painful involuntary muscle contractions.
is the result of torn ligament fibers that results in a loosening.
is the result of a sudden tearing of muscle fibers during exertion; also referred to as a pulled muscle.
is an inherited disease that causes progressive deterioration of the muscles.
is a chronic neuromuscular disease that causes gradually increasing muscle weakness.
is the largest organ of the body and accounts for about 15% of total body weight and has a surface area of about 25 square feet in an adult and provides protection from environmental hazards such as sunrays and bacteria.
includes the skin and its appendages. The appendages include hair, nails, and the sweat and oil glands.
LAYERS OF THE SKIN
EPIDERMIS, DERMIS, SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
This outer layer of the skin, consisting of five or six layers, contains no blood supply or nerves. The outermost layer is composed of cells (squamous) that have died from environmental exposure and are shed daily.
This is the second layer of skin, which contains involuntary muscles (arrector pili muscles cause "goose bumps"), blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles, sudoriferous (sweat) glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands.
This is the innermost layer of the skin containing fatty and connective tissue, which fastens the skin to the underlying muscles.
Each hair is encased within a hair follicle and ends in a root where hair growth occurs. Hair is composed of a fibrous protein called KERATIN, which is a nonliving cell (a good thing, or haircuts would be very painful).
Fingernails and toenails are also composed of keratin. The growth of the nail occurs at the base of the nail under the half-moon-shaped area. The function of the nails is to protect the fingers and toes.
SUDORIFEROUS (sweat) GLANDS
During perspiration, water mixed with salt and waste products are excreted through the sweat glands. The function of the sweat glands is to excrete excess water and to assist the cooling of the body by the evaporation of water from the skin.
SEBACEOUS (oil) GLANDS
These excrete an oily substance (sebum) to lubricate and protect the skin. Sebum is slightly acidic, so it discourages the growth of bacteria.
CANCER OF THE SKIN
has three forms: basal cell, squamous cell, and melanoma. Basal cell is the most common and easiest to treat; squamous cell is more serious; melanoma is the most common and easiest to treat; squamous cell is more serious; Melanoma is the most serious and can be life threatening.
is a bacterial infection of the dermis and subcutaneous layers of the skin.
are areas of skin breakdown that occur over a bony prominence due to excessive and prolonged pressure that prevents adequate circulation to the tissues.
is a general name for inflammation of the skin. Contact dermatitis is an allergic reaction to a substance that makes contact with the skin. Eczema is a generalized skin irritation usually caused by an irritant that appears as reddened areas on the surface of the skin.
is a chronic, noncontagious, inherited skin disease in which too many epithelial cells are produced.
are caused by a viral infection of the skin.
turns food into the fuel needed for energy and for the growth and repair of cells.
THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
the heart pumps blood that circulates throughout the body and then back to the heart through a network of blood vessels.
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
does not have an extensive network of lymphatic vessels similar in design to blood vessels.
transports blood cells and dissolved materials, including nutrients and oxygen, to all areas of the body. The other important function of this system is temperature regulation. This temperature range is maintained by circulating the warmer blood from the center of the body to the surface of the skin where it is cooled.
are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. VEINS are blood vessels that return blood to the heart. CAPILLARIES is the name of the smallest of the branches.
THE MAIN FUNCTION OF THE HEART
Is to pump enough blood at a high enough pressure to supply every part of the body. The heart is located in the chest cavity, between the lung, where it is protected by the ribs and sternum.
Smooth layer that lines the inside of the heart.
Thick layer of muscle tissue that performs the pumping action.
Sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart.
Two for receiving blood (atria) and two for moving it out of the heart (ventricles). When blood is pumped out of the chambers, valves snap shut with a "thump-thump" (often referred to as "lub-dub", which is the sound heard when listening to the heart. The valves prevent backflow of blood.
ADULT HEART RATE
is between 60 and 80 beats per minute. It is higher in children, gradually decreasing from its highest rate at birth until reaching its adult rate.
THE CORONARY ARTERIES AND VEINS
Are the heart's own blood supply that wraps around its surface to provide it with nourishment and remove wastes.
carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart from all areas of the body (the pulmonary vein is the only vein that carries oxygenated blood).
are the smallest blood vessels. They connect the arterioles with the venules. Their one-cell-thick walls allow substances to exit and enter the bloodstream. Nutrients and oxygen move from the blood into surrounding tissues.
REB BLOOD CELLS
carry oxygen to the body cells. They pick up oxygen in the lung and bind it to a substance called hemoglobin, the give up the oxygen when they reach the capillaries.
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
fight infections. They pass through the blood vessel to work in the tissues as needed. They function as scavenger cells that engulf, ingest, and destroy infection cells and the remove wastes and dead cells.
clump together to form clots when a blood vessel is damaged and aid in preventing loss of blood.
is the liquid part of the blood, consisting mostly of water. Its purpose is to transport the other blood cells along with other nutrients and hormones. It also supplies the fluid needed inside and around the body cells.
The second essential transportation system, this network of fluid, called lymph, serves to defend against infection, maintain fluid balance, and remove waste products.
is a straw-colored fluid that consists of water, waste products, digested nutrients, hormones, salts, and lymphocytes.lymph travels through vessels that are similar to blood vessels.
is located in the upper-left area of the abdomen just under the diaphragm.
results when the blood has an inadequate amount of hemoglobin, red blood cells, or both.
red blood cells not developed due to poor absorption of vitamin B12, iron-deficiency.
Bone marrow destroyed by chemicals, radiation, or medications
is a ballooning out of the arterial wall that wakens the wall and disrupts blood flow.
is heart pain caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart by the coronary arteries.
is a hardening or thickening of the arterial walls, resulting in loss of elasticity and contractility.
occurs when fatty plaques are deposited on the walls of the arteries and narrows the lumen (opening). The narrowing decreases or prevents blood flow.
CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
is a condition in which the heart fails as a pump.
is high blood pressure.
INFLAMMATION OF THE HEART
can occur at any of the three layers of the heart: endocarditis affects the inner lining of the heart and heart valves; myocarditis affects the cardiac muscle; pericarditis affects the sac that surrounds the heart.
LEUKEMIA (BLOOD CANCER)
is an abnormal increase in white blood cells that are immature and less effective than mature cells in fighting infections. These immature cells become so prevalent that they replace the red blood cells and cause anemia.
SEPTICEMIA (BLOOD POISONING)
occurs when an infection enters the blood vessels.
is a blood clot that forms in a blood vessel. If it breaks loose and travels through the body, it is called an embolus.
are dilated veins filled with blood. Veins that lose their elasticity allow the blood to pool (stasis), and the result is decreased blood flow.
ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)
is caused by a virus and results in failure of the body's immune system.
occur when the body does not recognize its own tissue and initiates an immune response to destroy the tissue.
is a form of cancer that affects the lymph nodes.
is an infection of the tonsils caused by the large number of microorganisms they are filtering through their lymph tissues.
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. The main function of the system is to deliver air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the air and the circulating blood.
The sensory organ for smell (olfactory). It is also important in the respiratory system. The nose is the first filter for the incoming air. Hairs and bony ridges in the nasal cavity has a mucous membrane that produces mucus to trap smaller particles.
are cavity filled with air that are located around the eyes and nose. Lines with mucous membrane, they also create a resonance to the voice. (the change in the voice during a nasal cold is due to the blockage of sinuses).
the throat, located behind the nasal cavities, it is the passageway for food and liquids, along with air. To prevent swallowed items from entering the passageway to the lungs, there is a flap-like structure called the epiglottis that closes off the larynx automatically during swallowing.
the voicebox containing the vocal cords. These are usually relaxed and open. Sounds, such as speech and singing, are produced when the cords are tightened at the same time that air to passed out of the lungs.
The windpipe, which serves as a passageway for air. At its distal end, it splits to form the right and left bronchi.
occurs when the alveoli are either partially or totally collapsed. Common causes ate blockage in the lung, not breathing deeply due to pain or injury, and inability to cough up secretions.
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD)
is a general term that refers to chronic diseases the obstruct airflow. For example, asthma causes the bronchial tube walls to spasm, which narrows the passageway for airflow. The narrowing prevents an easy exhalation of air and the patient experiences a sense of suffocation.
is an inflammation of the bronchi and bronchial tubes.
causes the alveoli to become stretched out, which prevents them from efficiently exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide.
is the growth of tissue in the lung that destroys ofr blocks the flow of oxygen to the healthy lung tissue. This results in the entire body being deprived of oxygen.
is an inflammation of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, virus, or fungi.
is the collapse of a lung due to air in the chest cavity. The lung can develop an internal leak or air can enter through a hole from the outside, such as a gunshot or stabwound.
is a disease that damages the lungs and is caused by the tubercle bacillus (mycobacterium tuberculosis). It is transmitted from person to person through the air.
THE ALIMENTARY CANAL
It is the long tube which form the digestive system with 30 feet long and extends from the mouth.
THE MAIN STRUCTURE THAT PARTICIPATE IN THE DIGESTION OF FOOD INCLUDE:
the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines.
food enters the mouth, where its taste triggers the saliva glands to produce digestive enzymes, which begin the breakdown of carbohydrates. The teeth chop and grind and the tongue mashes the food against the hard palate, mixing it with saliva.
A strong, muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach, it lies behind the trachea and in front of the spinal column. It is composed of layers of muscle that contract to move the food. This action called peristalsis, is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
which prevents the acidic content of the stomach from backflowing into the esophagus.
A muscular, elastic bag that fits under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdomen and is protected by the lower ribs. Food usually remains in the stomach for 2 to 4 hours while its muscles contract to mix it well with digestive juices. The glands in the stomach release hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria, pepsin to break down protein, and mucus to protect the stomach wall from the acidic gastric juices.
Also known as the small bowel, it consists of three parts: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Once the food passes into the small intestine, additional intestinal juices are added, including bile from the liver and pancreatic juice from the pancreas.
also known as the large bowel. Nutrients and water not absorbed in the small intestine are absorbed here. The large intestine contains bacteria that work on the undigested substances and synthesize vitamin K (essential for blood clotting), as well as some of the B - Complex vitamins (promote various body functions).
is an inflammation of the appendix from unknown causes. The only treatment is surgical removal (appendectomy).
is not a disease, but a general term used to describe the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (space between the layers of the membrane that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities).
is a group of chronic diseases that involve scarring of liver tissue, which decreases the ability of the liver to perform its functions.
is the presence of stomes in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder.
involves an abnormal growth in the large intestines that damages tissue and can cause a blockage of the digestive system.
is the inability to pass feces, the body's waste that is passed through the anus. The most common causes are lack of dietary fiber, inadequate fluids, certain medications, and lack of exercise.
is the passage of frequent and watery stools. It can be caused by certain diseases, stress, medications, and diet.
is the wakening of the colon wall leading to an outpouching in the wall. These diverticula can trap digestive material and become infected. DIVERTICULITIS is an inflammation of the diverticula.
is an inflammation of the mucous membranes that line the stomach and intestines. Causes include food poisoning, infection, and toxins.
is when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed and can be caused by spicy foods and certain medications.
occurs when the gastric juices back up through the cardiac sphincter and irritate the lower end of the esophagus.
are painful, dilated veins in the lower rectum or anus.
is an inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or poison.
is an inflammation of the pancreas that can be caused by a variety of factors.
is a condition in which the lining (peritoneum) of the abdominal cavity becomes inflamed.
is an open sore in the lining of the digestive system. Pain occurs when the protective lining is damaged and the acidic juices come into contact with the delicate tissues underneath.
can occur in the stomach or duodenum
a severe inflammation of the colon with the formation of ulcers and abscesses (collection of pus in a cavity).
eliminates excess water, salts, and waste products from the body. It consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Located behind the peritoneum (lining of the abdominal cavity) and on either side of the spinal column, below the diaphragm. The kidneys clean the blood and regulate the amount of water in the body.
The ureters connect the kidneys with the bladder, forming passageways for the urine.
Stores urine, expanding and contracting its smooth-muscle walls as needed. When the bladder wall is stretched by a large amount of urine, the nerves in the wall senn a message to the brain conveying the need to urinate.
The tube through which urine is passed to the outside of the body. Passage requires relaxation of the voluntary sphincter.
is not a disease but a general term used to describe the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the tissues. Kidney failure, congestive heart failure, and many other conditions can cause edema.
KIDNEY (RENAL) FAILURE
KIDNEY (RENAL) FAILURE
is a procedure in which the blood is passed through a device that function as an artificial kidney.
KIDNEY (RENAL) CALCULI
are kidney stones and are usually composed of uric acid or calcium crystals.
is the inability to control urination. Urinary retention is the inability to urinate when the urge is felt or the bladder is full. These conditions have many causes.
URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI)
is an infection of the lower urinary structures. Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra and cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder.
include nephritis or glomerulonephritis, which refers to an inflammation of the glomerulus (nephrons).
is an inflammation of the kidney tissue and renal pelvis (collecting part of kidney that narrows into the ureter).
is often compared to a camera. It receives visual information from light rays through a transparent layer called the CORNEA. The light then enters an opening called the PUPIL, the round, black center of the eye. The lens projects the light rays on the RETINA, the innermost layer of the eye.
THREE LAYER OF THE EYES ARE:
the sclera, the choroid, and the retina
The "white of the eye" is tough, fibrous tissue that serves as a protective shield. It contains the cornea.
Containing many blood vessels to nourish the eye, it includes the iris, pupil, and lens.
is the colored part, usually shades of blue, brown, or green and what people refer to when they say you have blue, brown, or hazel eyes.
thin membrane attached to the back of the eyes on which images are projected. It contains two types of light-sensing receptors called RODS AND CONES. The rods are responsible for seeing in dim light and the cones for seeing colors and in bright light.
Skull bones that form protective cavities for the eye.
EYELIDS, EYELASHES, AND EYEBROWS
Eyelids help distribute moisture over the eye and remove small particles that get into the eye. They also automatically close when an object suddenly come toward the eye. The eyebrows and eyelashes catch moisture and particles to prevent them from falling into the eye.
Membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid and extends to the cornea on the surface of the eye.
Produce tears for cleaning and moisturizing the eye.
A clear, watery fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye that bathes the iris, pupil, and lens.
A clear, jelly-like fluid in the posterior chamber that maintains the shape of the eyeball and bends light rays.
have both auditory (hearing) and balance organs. The outer ear collects sound waves, which are directed through a canal to the EARDRUM.
THE EAR CAN BE DIVIDED INTO THREE AREAS:
the external (outer) ear, middle ear, and internal (inner) ear.
Theouter, visible projection of the ear. Designed to direct sound waves into the ear canal
EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL
The canal that extends from the outside to the eardrum. Earwax is produced by ceruminous glands to prevent foreign bodies from entering the ear.
EARDRUM (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE)
Located at the end of the external auditory canal, it separates the outer and middle ears. The membrane vibrate when hit by sound waves, which are then transmitted to the middle ear.
is the condition in which the lens of the eye loses its transparency, preventing light from reaching the inner eye.
is an inflammation of the eyelid lining caused by bacteria or irritation from a particle of debris in the eye. Sometimes referred to as "pink eye."
occurs when the pressure within the eye increases. This pressure can cause deterioration of the optic nerve.
is a disorder of the retina that results in dimming and/ or distortion of vision.
include a number of very common problems that require corrective lenses. For example, myopia (nearsightednee) occur when the eyeball is longer than normal and cannot focus clearly on faraway objects.
occurs when the eyeball is shorter than normal and results in the inability to focus clearly on nearby objects.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM`
consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It detects sensation from all parts of the body and controls all the body's actions.
is caused by brain damage and results in a lack of control over the voluntary muscle.
A CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT
involves the brain and its blood supply and is commonly referred to as a "stroke," and can be caused by a block in the blood flow or result from a ruptured vessels.
ENCEPHALITIS is an infection of the brain.
Consists of glands that manufacture hormones. A HORMONE is a chemical substance secreted by a gland in one part of the body that travels via the bloodstream to direct changes in the activities of other organ systems.
SYSTEMS FOR PRODUCING
is one of the most fundamental functions common to all living organisms. The reproductive system allows the creation of a new human being who is both like and unlike each of the two parents.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
can be divided into the internal and external reproductive organs.
there are two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus, which is located in the lower abdomen. They produce the hormones ESTROGEN and PROGESTERONE, which determine the female characteristics and are necessary for pregnancy and subsequent childbirth to occur. The OVUM is the female sex cell.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Structure and Function of the Human Body
Structure and Functions of the Human Body
Anatomy and Physiology
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Health Science 1 Exam Study Guide
Health Science 1 Exam Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology
Physiology Study Guide
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEMS