Israel Palestine Conflict Test

*KNOW WHAT EACH TERM MEANS TO PALESTINIANS AND JEWS*
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Terms in this set (...)

What are Israel's claims to the land?
Jews have had a relationship with this territory for 37 centuries. They need a homeland, as there is nowhere else that speaks Hebrew.
What are the Palestinian's claim to the land?
Palestinians descend from the Canaanites, who were the first owners of the territory. The Jews then took the territory from the Canaanites, until the Romans took the Jews. If what the Jews are seeking is compensation, they should go to the Romans.
What is the relationship of Abraham to the Jews and Palestinians?
Jews: Abraham made a covenant with God that founded Judaism and claimed Israel. God promised that Abrahams followers, the Jews, would get Israel.
Palestinians: They consider Abraham as their ancestor. Scholars say the children of Ishmael (Abraham's son;the Arabs) will inherit Israel, the holy land
Dome of the Rock
a shrine in Jerusalem, located on the Temple Mount, which houses the spot where Muslims believe Muhammad rose into heaven and where Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac to God
Solomon's Temple
A famous temple created by Solomon for God. It was destroyed in babylonian victory, now the Western Wall is the only thing left of it.
Western/Wailing Wall
The only part left of Solomon's temple. The rest was destroyed by the babylonians.
Describe Roman's conquering of the Jews
When the Romans conquered the Jews, the Holy Temple was destroyed. The Zealots avoiding surrendering to the Roman's siege by holding a mass suicide. Jerusalem was destroyed and Jews could no longer enter Rome.
How were the Jews treated under the Canaanites?
Triumphs: They had a lot of land and a prosperous community.
Difficulties: The Assyrians forced them to emigrate. Babylonians took Israel, destroyed Solomon's Temples and forced Jews to move to Babylonia.
Jerusalem
A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
Zionism
Jew's liberation movement where they are trying to seek a safe homeland away from anti-Semitism
Herzl
Father of Zionism. Publicly: wants to coexist with the Arabs. Privately: plans on slowly forcing them out of Palestine
What do the Palestinians think of Zionism?
They feel that Zionists are neglecting them. To them, Zionism appears as starting a conflict to save the Jews and destroy the Arabs.
What are the views of political Zionists?
-Create a safe place away from anti-Semitism
-live in Palestine
-favor mass-migration, not settlement
What are the views of religious Zionists?
-follow prophecies of the Torah; God will not move them
-the land of Israel for the people of Israel
-cooperate with secular Zionists (common goals)
What are the views of cultural Zionists?
-homeland in Palestine
-settlement, not mass migration
-improve life and culture
What are the views of socialist Zionists?
-Jews suffered because they were excluded from the means of production
-they want to base the Jewish state on socialist values
What are the views of revisionist Zionism?
-bold political action to protect Jews
-if violence is used against them, they'll use violence
-colonization won't help
What are the views of conservative Zionism?
-need a Jewish homeland
-similar to American views
-synagogue and state are the same
Balfour Declaration
Declares that Palestine is the national home of the Jews , and the British government supports them
Who wrote the Balfour Declaration? When?
Arthur James Balfour wrote it: the British don't even own Palestine yet, they shouldn't be able to give it away.
WWI (November 1917)
Sykes-Picot
a secret treaty which divided the Ottoman Empire. Britain was to get Iraq, Palestine and Transjordan and France would get Syria and Lebanon.
British Mandate in Palestine
British gave Jews anything west of the Jordan river, Palestinians got anything east of it.
When was Transjordan created?
1923-just after the British conquered Palestine
Paris peace conference
The allies met in Versailles to negotiate the "leftovers" of the war, included Lloyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancau (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference was unsuccessful.
Explain what the Jews meant be a "safe haven"
They wanted a nation somewhere that was free of anti-Semitism, so they could live safely and peacefully
Define Imperialism
taking advantage of another country's resources and people
Arab Rebellion
(1916)- Arab nationalists got help from the British to attack Ottoman Empire. They controlled modern day Jordan, Arabian peninsula and south Syria.
Hussein (arab rebellion)
He was an Arab nationalist--wanted a single unified Arab nation
Hashemites
powerful family that was given power over many states. Still in power in Jordan
McMahon Letter
McMahon (Britain) to Sharif Hussein (Arab) saying that Arabs will be independent, Muslim holy places will be protected, and that Britain will avise and assist Arabs: gives Arabs Palestine, but Arabs have to overthrow Ottomans
Describe the creation of Israel
Ben Guiron declared Israel a Jewish state. Americans believed it would cause a war, so they did not initially support it but later changed their mind.
How did Arabs react after the State of Israel was declared?
Armies from Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Egypt invaded and attacked.
David Ben Guiron
Jewish man who declared the state of Israel to the U.N.
Deir Yassin
Neutral (Arab) village blocking a road to Jerusalem. Zionists attacked-110 Arabs died.
How did Arabs leaders try to depict what happened at Deir Yassin?
They tried to say that pregnant women had been raped, and children murdered. This was meant to bring Arab armies to liberate Palestine, but Palestinians fled instead.
Right of Return--Palestinians
They believe that they have the right to return to the land that was taken from them when they were forced to become refugees.
Plan Dalet (Jewish perspective)
The Jews viewed Plan Dalet as pushing the Arabs out to save the Jews. They did not mean for it to be viewed as destroying the Arabs.
Plan Dalet (Arab perspective)
Arabs thought that Jews would physically push them out of Israel, using a lot of violence.
Why is the Holocaust significant for the Jewish perspective?
6 million of them had just been murdered. They needed somewhere away from anti-Semitism to live. *Were forced to go back to Europe because of Arab revolt (1939)
U.N. Partition of Palestine
Gave Jews 55% of land (make up 33%)
Arabs got 45% of land (make up 66%)
Why did Palestinians reject the U.N. Partition Plan?
They felt that outsiders could not dictate who gets the land. They only wanted their own land, no matter how big.
Suez Crisis
Israelis took control of Sinai, British and French troops in the Canal Zone when they attacked Egypt
6 Day War
June 5-11. Israelis captured land 3x its size, and defeated armies from Egypt, Jordan and Syria. *1967
Fatah
National Liberation of Palestine. Launched from Syria in 1965.
Al Nakba
Arabic for 'the catastrophe'; refers to 1948 war
Explain this quote: [God to Abraham] "As an everlasting possession, I will give you and your descendants the land in which you are now aliens, all the land of Canaan."
Abraham founded Judaism. His descendants are the Jews: they claim that God gave them the land. Palestinians say thats Ishmael, Abraham's son, founded Islam. They claim to be descendants of Abraham also.
Explain: "A land without people for a people without a land"
Jews are the people without a land. They say that Palestine is a land without people, because they ignore all the Arabs living there, which offends the Arabs very much.
Explain: "When is a Palestinian the same as an Arab? Is Jordan Palestine?"
If Palestinians are Arabs, then Palestinians could go to any 21 Arab nations. However if Palestinians are a nationality, they need their own state. If Jordan is Palestine, Palestinians could go there.
Diaspora Jews
Jews that were forced from their land and holy temple.
Pogroms
Authorities in Europe rape and hurt Jews repeatedly. One of the reasons Jews left Europe-Anti Semitism
"Next year, in Jerusalem!"
During Passover, Jews say this. They always looked to Jerusalem as their home, and knew that they would return.
Describe the 1948 war
The day after the State of Israel was declared, Egypt, Syria and Jordan armies surround Israel. Israel is divided into triangles for each group.
Jewish Migration to Palestine between World Wars
There was a lot of anti-Semitism going on in Europe- Pogroms, Dreyfus Affair. Arabs start to rebel because they're mad about losing their country.