50 terms

AP Chemistry

Basic Knowledge Needed for AP Chemistry and the AP Exam.
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What is a solution?
A homogeneous mixture made up of two or more substances that do not chemically combine; instead, the substances mix uniformly in the solution.
What is a solvent?
The substance present in the largest quantity by volume, usually water.
What is a solute?
The substance that is dissolved in the solvent.
How do you find the empirical formula of a compound?
First, determine mol by dividing the percent comp or mass of elements by their molar mass, then divide the mol values by the smallest mol value.
How do you find the molecular formula of a compound?
First, determine the mass of the empirical formula, then divide the mass of the molecular formula by the mass of the empirical and finally multiply the empirical formula by the ratio obtained between the masses.
What is the equation to find percent yield?
(laboratory yield/theoretical yield) * 100 = percent yield
What is the equation to find percent error?
(|lab value-accepted value|/accepted value) * 100 = percent error
What is the full electron configuration of Sulfur (S)?
1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁴
What is the compound name for iron (III) hydride?
FeH₃
What does NH₄OH dissociate into?
NH₄⁺ and OH⁻
List the seven strong acids.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Hydrobromic acid (HBr), Hydroiodic acid (HI), Nitric acid (HNO₃), perchloric acid (HClO₄), chloric acid (HClO₃), sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄)
List the six strong bases.
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), Lithium hydroxide (LiOH), Potassium hydroxide (KOH), Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂), Strontium hydroxide (Sr(OH)₂), Barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)₂)
Are compounds of Group 1 metals soluble or insoluble?
Soluble
Are common ammonium ions soluble or insoluble?
Soluble
Are common nitrates soluble or insoluble?
Soluble
Are common acetates soluble or insoluble?
Soluble
Are common chlorates soluble or insoluble?
Soluble
Are common perchlorates soluble or insoluble?
Soluble
List the insoluble fluoride compounds.
MgF₂, CaF₂, SrF₂, BaF₂, PbF₂
List the insoluble halide compounds.
AgX, Hg₂X, PbX₂
What is the molarity equation?
M = mol/Liters
What is the dilution equation?
M₁V₁ = M₂V₂
Define precipitation.
The formation of an insoluble compound in an aqueous solution.
Define precipitate.
The insoluble compound formed out of precipitation.
What are cations?
Positively charged ions.
What are anions?
Negatively charged ions.
What is the ideal gas law equation?
PV = nRT
What is the value of 'R' in the ideal gas law when using atm?
0.0821
What is effective nuclear charge?
A measure of the nuclear charge experienced by an atom, meaning as the effective nuclear charge increases for electrons they will be pulled closer to the nucleus.
What is ionization energy?
The amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion, forming a positive-charged ion.
How is ionization energy related to atomic radius?
Ionization energy increase as atomic radius decreases and decreases as atomic radius increases.
What is electron affinity?
A measure of the energy change present when gaseous atoms take electrons into their valence shells, creating negatively-charged ions.
What is an oxidation reduction reaction?
A reaction that occurs with the transfer of electrons from one species to another.
What is a reduction in an oxidation-reduction reaction?
The result of gaining electrons, causing a reduction in oxidation number.
What is an oxidation in an oxidation-reduction reaction?
The result of losing electrons, causing an increase in oxidation number.
What is an oxidation number?
A number that represents the ionic charge of an ion.
What is a reducing agent (reductant)?
The species in a oxidation-reduction reaction that loses electrons, gaining a positive charge, to reduce the other species.
What is an oxidizing agent (oxidant)?
The species in an oxidation-reduction reaction that gains electrons from the reductant, giving it a negative charge.
What is a voltaic cell?
A device that allows the transfer of electrons between the reactants of an oxidation-reduction reaction without contact between the reactants.
What is an electrode?
A sample of metal that is connected to another by an external circuit.
Briefly explain the collision theory.
Suggests that chemical reaction occur when molecules or atoms collide with sufficient kinetic energy-the activation energy-and the collision occurs in a favorable orientation.
Who was the first to suggest the collision theory?
Svante Arrhenius in 1888.
Define reaction rate.
The change in amount of substance as it disappears or the other appears (measured in mol) divided by the elapsed time.
What changes the rate constant?
Temperature
What is the rate law equation?
rate = k[A][B]
How can you determine reaction orders?
Experimentation
What are reaction mechanisms?
The steps that occur during a chemical reaction as the reactants change into products.
What is an elementary step?
A process in a chemical reaction that only involves a single step.
Write an equilibrium expression.
Kc = ([C][D]/[A][B])
Explain Le Châtelier's Principle.
If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by a change in temperature, pressure or reactant or concentrations, then the system will respond by shifting its equilibrium position to counteract the effect of the disturbance.