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Lifespan chapter 2
Terms in this set (163)
Who would be most likely to believe that the horrible-sounding music his band is playing actually sounds good, just because he wants the band to sound good?
John, a preoperational thinker
What in the past was often called school phobia is now referred to as
school refusal behavior.
School refusal behavior
can lead to academic difficulty and dropping out of school.
A list of the most influential systems theorists would include the name
A theory guides all of the following EXCEPT
how many times an issue should be studied.
A list of the most influential psychoanalytic theorists would include the name
A theory that is falsifiable is
If asked to list the key issues on which developmental theorists tend to disagree, you would AVOID saying
The theorist most associated with a learning theory approach to development is
The theorist most associated with cognitive developmental theory is
. As a strong believer of the influence of experience, John Locke emphasized the role of _____ in human development
When John Locke referred to the mind of a human infant as like a tabula rasae, he meant that an infant's mind was
empty and to be written on through experience
John Locke believed that human nature was
determined by a person's experiences
With regard to the nature-nurture debate, a strong believer in nature would suggest that
maturation forces are more influential than environmental experiences in determining human behavior.
Miley is a strong believer in the power of nature in determining the way her son Cyrus acts. As a result, she is most likely to agree that Cyrus's aggression is the result of
inheriting genes for violence.
Because Dr. Smith falls on the "nurture" side of the nature-nurture controversy, she is most likely to believe that
a mother's care can greatly impact the development of a child.
Which perspective argues that human development takes many paths and is minimally influenced by physiological factors?
Nurture perspective only
A parent who falls on the "activity" side of the "activity-passivity" issue is most likely to believe that
children play an important role in shaping their own development
Lindsey argues that she is not responsible for any of her bad behavior as she is driven by biological and environmental factors over which she has no control. This belief best exemplifies the _____ position on development.
Which statement best describes the continuity approach to development?
Small steps without sudden change
The fact that Goober believes in different stages of development indicates that he views human development as reflecting
Jerome believes that development proceeds through a series of developmental stages, each of which represents distinct changes. He might best be called a(n) _____ theorist.
Qualitative changes are best thought of as changes in _____, while quantitative changes are best thought of as changes in _____.
Saturn's daughter is approaching adolescence, and Saturn is convinced that the impending adolescence will be singularly awful and a stage of life like no other time across the lifespan. As she puts it, adolescents are like creatures from another planet. Saturn's perspective on the matter fits best with that of _____ theorists
The universality-context-specificity issue is concerned with whether
we all follow the same or different developmental paths.
The belief that the same type of change occurs in all humans best fits with the _____ approach to development
The statement, "change is different from person to person because cultures differ from person to person," best fits with the _____ approach to development
Anthony believes that his daughter Cleopatra acts the way she does because of the unconscious workings of her mind. This belief best matches with the _____ theory of development
Dr. Love believes that it is normal for a six-month-old to throw tantrums when she doesn't immediately get what she wants. Dr. Love's views are most in line with those of
Instincts are best described as
inborn biological forces that motivate behavior
Freud emphasized the importance of _____ in determining behavior.
Because he holds a psychoanalytic orientation, Dr. Powers would suggest that the true reason for his son's interest in becoming an international spy involves
an unconscious sex drive
Freud believed that human infants were born with
only an id
According to Freud, I am the component of personality that is impulsive, irrational, and driven to satisfy instincts. I am the
According to Freud, the personality component underlying the crying of a hungry newborn is called the
According to Freud, the primary mission of the ego is to
help the child find realistic ways to get needs met
Lisa and Lyle both want to stay up past their bedtimes to watch a show on TV. When their parents say "No," Lisa throws a fit, while Lyle says, "Please? I'll brush my teeth and get into PJs so that I can just pop into bed the minute the show is over!" From a Freudian perspective, Lisa is responding from her _____, while Lyle is communicating through his _____.
I am the "moral" aspect of the personality that helps a person determine the difference between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Sigmund Freud called me the
Five-year-old Theodore is currently internalizing the moral standards of his father Ward and mother June. According to a psychoanalytic theorist, Theodore appears to be developing his
After her mother says, "No, you may not eat any cookies" Sandra takes some cookies from the cookie jar and eats them when her mother isn't looking. Later, she feels badly because she knows this was not a good thing to do. Sandra's attitude indicates that her
superego is reasonably well developed
According to Freud, in a mentally healthy individual, the
ego restrains the id.
Freud suggested that psychological problems arise when the
supply of psychic energy is unevenly distributed between the id, ego, and superego
Libido is best defined as
the psychic energy of the sex instinct
Which is the correct order of the psychosexual stages of development?
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Which of the following best characterizes Freud's position on the nature-nurture issue?
He emphasized nature more than nurture
When part of the libido remains tied to an earlier stage of development, _____ has occurred.
Salem, a university professor, smokes like a chimney and bites her nails. Freud would most likely say that Salem
has become fixated at the oral stage of development
When Felix and Oscar go out to dinner with friends, Felix brings a calculator so that he can figure out his exact share of the bill. Oscar thinks Felix is a tightwad and finds his behavior embarrassing. Freud would be most likely to attribute Felix's stingy behavior to
According to Freud, the _____ stage is the first psychosexual stage of development
Paris is a 16-year-old who is having difficulty accepting her newfound sexuality. Given this description, Freud would argue that Paris is in the _____ stage of development
Four-year-old Ed says, "Mommy, when I grow up I want to marry you and be your husband." Given this statement, Ed appears to be experiencing a(n) _____ complex.
Freudians believe that when experiencing an Oedipus complex, a boy will fear that his father will retaliate by _____ him.
The Oedipus complex is successfully resolved through the process of
Who is undergoing psychodynamic identification?
Simon, who is taking on the behaviors of his father
Five-year-old Greta envies the fact that her father has something she doesn't, a penis. Freud referred to what Greta is experiencing as a(n) _____ complex.
Oedipus is to Electra as
boy is to girl
Ten-year-old Jordan has few sexual urges and expends most of his energy playing basketball. Jordan appears to be in Freud's _____ stage of development
To control anxiety, the ego is most likely to
adopt defense mechanisms
Brynn is three years old. She has been out of diapers for over a year. When her mother comes home from the hospital with a new baby brother, Brynn begins to suck her thumb and wet the bed at night. According to Freud, Brynn is experiencing
Which defense mechanism involves removing unacceptable thoughts from consciousness?
Seven-year-old Jasper devotes his energy to play and schoolwork. According to Freud, Jasper is in which stage?
Morgan, who just started kindergarten, is refusing to go to school and clings to his mother every morning. What would Freud suggest?
Examine Morgan's relationship with his mother and the resolution of his Oedipus complex
A reasonable criticism of Freudian psychoanalytic theory is that it puts too little emphasis on the
collection of hard data to support his findings.
One strength of Freud's approach to development is his description of how
early experience can influence later development
Adler, Jung, Horney, and Erikson are all well-known
. In comparison to Freud, Erikson placed greater emphasis on
development after adolescence.
Erikson's theory is different from Freud's because it
focuses on possibilities for growth beyond adolescence.
Maya has recently given birth to a healthy baby boy, Jason. Whenever Jason cries, Maya goes to him, tries to figure out the reason for his crying, and then promptly does all she can to meet his needs. According to Erikson's theory, Jason is well on his way toward mastering the conflict of
trust versus mistrust.
Erikson emphasized the importance of a caregiver's _____ in predicting the impact of early life experience on later development.
. The preschool-aged child is typically in which of Erikson's psychosocial stages?
Initiative versus guilt
Rather than a sense of inferiority, eight-year-old Zeke has developed a sense of mastery in all his academic endeavors. Erikson would say that Zeke has a strong sense of
Erikson used the phrase "_____" to characterize the key element of adolescence
Rachel is 15 years old. She spends countless hours alone and in conversation with her peers trying to figure out what it is she wants to do with her life. Rachel is in which of the following of Erikson's psychosocial stages?
Identity versus role confusion
Twenty-eight-year-old Serge is a typical young adult. As such, Erikson would suggest that Sergi is most concerned about
establishing an intimate long-term love relationship
Which question provides the best example of the concept of generativity versus stagnation?
Will my work benefit the next generation?
Ruth is 80 years old and terminally ill with cancer. As she reflects back on her life, she comes to the conclusion that she has lived a full and productive life, and that it could not have been better lived in any other way. Ruth has successfully mastered the developmental task of
integrity versus despair.
Bob is currently questioning himself. Which question would indicate that Bob is currently in Erikson's integrity versus despair stage of life?
Has my life been worthwhile?
Which of the following is a key criticism of Erikson's theory of personality development?
His theory is rather vague and difficult to test
Which theoretical camp suggests that we should study only what we can directly observe and measure (i.e., overt behaviors)?
Watson believed that
how a person turns out depends entirely on the environment in which he or she grows up
The type of learning Watson and Pavlov's studied is referred to as _____ conditioning
When describing her theory of development, Candice says, "The basic idea is that I take a stimulus that at first has no effect on an individual. Then I pair that stimulus with a second stimulus that does elicit some response. After the two have been paired together a few times, I test to see if the initial stimulus now elicits a response similar to the one elicited by the second stimulus." Given this description, Candice would be best classified as a(n) _____ conditioning theorist.
An unconditioned stimulus is best described as a(n)
event that automatically leads to a response.
In a study on digestion in dogs, Pavlov used the bell as a(n)
In Watson and Raynor's classical conditioning study with Albert, a steel bar banged with a hammer served as the
Polly is attending her first birthday party, where she sees her first balloon. While playing with the balloon, she accidentally pops it with a pin. When the balloon pops, she screams, drops her drink, and starts to cry when she sees it stain the carpet. In this situation, the noise produced by the popping balloon would represent a(n)
When Mr. Earlgray sits on a needle, he instinctively screams and then accidentally knocks over his cup of tea. He then claims that he will never drink tea again, because he finds the act too painful. In this situation, which provides the best example of an unconditioned stimulus?
In Watson and Raynor's study on Little Albert, a white rat served as the
A major issue with Watson and Raynor's experiment is that
by today's standards, it is unethical.
Watson and Raynor's experiment is important because it demonstrated that
fear can be learned.
_____ is best associated with operant conditioning theory.
Hank is upset with his son for keeping his room so messy. His neighbor, Boomhauer, suggests that Hank give his son a dollar for cleaning his room on Saturday mornings, because he believes that doing so will increase the probability of his son cleaning his room in the future. Hank's approach is most similar to research conducted by which of the following theorists?
The basic premise of operant conditioning is that
the consequences that follow a behavior impact the likelihood of the behavior being repeated.
strengthens the likelihood that a behavioral response will occur in the future
In operant conditioning terms, a positive consequence is to a negative consequence as
adding is to removing.
Joy comes home from work exhausted and is surprised to find that her daughter, Michelle, has set the table and started dinner. Joy is thrilled. She praises Michelle and spends an extra half-hour reading with her before bed (something that Michelle likes). The same thing happens the next day, and soon this has become a daily event. This is an example of
After Brainiac brings home a report card with all As, his parents (who want to make sure this behavior continues in the future) give him a new car (something that he really wanted). It appears that Brainiac's parents are attempting to use _____ to keep Brainiac's grades up.
Marge wants her daughter Lisa to improve her study skills. How could Marge use positive reinforcement to achieve this goal?
She could give Lisa candy (something Lisa likes) every time she studies.
GUESS WHAT BABY?!?!?!?!?!?!!?!?!?!
I LOVE YOU <3
Which statement concerning effective positive reinforcement is true?
Elizabeth tells her daughter Taylor, "I will stop this nagging, which you find unpleasant, as soon as you clean your room today and continue to clean it in the future." This description indicates that Elizabeth is trying to use
In operant conditioning terms, a negative consequence
occurs when something is removed.
weakens the likelihood that a behavioral response will occur in the future.
Which is the best example of positive punishment?
Spanking a child in order to get him to stop swearing
In operant conditioning terms, _____ occurs when something unpleasant is added and the result is a decreased response rate.
Tiffany really likes jewelry. Her parents want Tiffany to stop talking on the phone every night after school. In order to accomplish this task, they take away Tiffany's new watch and tell her that she will lose more jewelry if she does not decrease her phone use. In this situation, Tiffany's parents are attempting to use _____ to alter Tiffany's behavior
How could an elementary teacher effectively use negative punishment in the classroom?
Take away recess time (something kids want) to decrease misbehavior
Extinction impacts a behavior by
making it less likely to occur
Which statement best exemplifies the process of extinction?
Just ignore it
Physical punishment tends to be most effective when it is
administered immediately after the offensive act.
. One of the elements that distinguished social cognitive theory from operant conditioning theory was the social cognitive theory emphasis on
How did Bandura demonstrate the existence of "observational learning" in the famous "Bobo" doll study?
He showed that children would model an adult they saw in a film.
Olga goes along with her brother Joe to his gymnastics class and watches closely while he works on the balance beam. One day, Olga's Mom finds her out in the back yard, with a board spread across two big boxes, doing some of the same maneuvers that she has seen Joe do in class. This is an example of
Cosmo, age three, has always been cooperative about going to bed at night. Then the family takes a trip and stays with relatives, where Cosmo 's cousin, Wanda (also age three), has a royal fit at bedtime. Cosmo watches while Wanda's parents read her extra stories and bring her a glass of juice to calm her down. After Cosmo and his family return home, Cosmo begins to throw tantrums at bedtime. Cosmo's change in behavior is best explained by
Beckham is watching his first soccer match on television. Despite the fact that he has learned to kick the ball like the players while watching the event, he does not demonstrate this skill in his backyard later that afternoon. Bandura would refer to this situation as demonstrating
What is vicarious reinforcement
When a person's behavior changes based on consequences that happen to an observed model
Cindy watches her big sister, Marsha, get ready for a big date by applying a lot of eye makeup. Cindy decides that the eye makeup would look good on her but decides to wait a while to get ready. When Marsha and Cindy come downstairs, their mother Carol screams at Marsha and tells her to go back upstairs and remove the eye makeup. Later, when Cindy is getting ready to go out, she looks at the makeup on her dresser and decides against putting it on. What concept best explains Cindy's decision?
The key "cognitive" aspect of social cognitive theory involving deliberate exercise of control over both one's environment and one's life is called
Which is the best example of Oscar's human agency?
The fact that his high sense of self-efficacy concerning acting allows him to believe that he is a good actor
Self-efficacy is best defined as
the belief that you can effectively accomplish a specific outcome.
Reciprocal determinism refers to a continuous back and forth interaction between
a person, his or her behavior, and the environment.
Learning theory explanations for school refusal include all of the following EXCEPT
the influence of unconscious desiresve of the id
What is a common criticism of learning approaches to human development?
Placing too little emphasis on genetic factors
Piaget's interest in cognitive development was impacted during his work on standardizing IQ tests, in which he took notice of
the fact that children of the same age often gave the same wrong answer
_____ championed the position called constructivism
Constructivism proposes that children learn best
According to Piaget, cognitive development is characteristic of an sequence of stages that
follow in a specific order (i.e., cannot be skipped).
During the _____ stage of development, individuals lack the ability to use symbols.
As a child moves from the sensorimotor stage to the preoperational stage, he or she first becomes able to
For Piaget, conservation is the ability to recognize that
certain properties of an object do not change, even when its appearance is altered in a superficial way.
Ruby watches as her mom puts a couple of drops of red food coloring into her glass of water. Although Ruby tasted the water just before her mom put in the drops, Ruby now believes that her water will taste like fruit punch. Piaget would most likely argue that Ruby is in the _____ stage of development.
What best describes the problem-solving approach of the concrete operational thinker?
Trial and error
Molly has just entered the stage of formal operational thought. Something she can do now that she could not do before is to
deal effectively with purely hypothetical situations.
A major criticism of Piaget's theory is that it
underestimates the cognitive abilities of young children.
. Because Rooney has a strong belief in a sociocultural view of cognitive development, he would be most likely to say, "_____."
You have to consider the important impact of historical context on development
Which type of theorist would be most likely to describe the human mind in terms of "mental hardware and software"?
A theorist with a(n) _____ perspective would be most likely to focus on the interaction between a changing environmental context and a person who is producing changes in the environment.
Who would best be described as an influential systems theorist?
In Bronfenbrenner's theory, the immediate physical and social environment is the
The greatest weakness of the systems theory of development is that it
fails to provide a coherent picture of development.
As a strong believer in learning theory, Bea would be most likely to describe parents as _____ of their children.
Which statement best exemplifies the perspective held by most 21st century developmentalists?
Humans and their environments mutually interact to influence development.
Dr. Zaius believes that no one theory can explain human development and has developed an approach that incorporates elements from many of the major theories. Given this description, Dr. Zaius is best classified as a(n) _____ theorist.
The term tabula rasa is best translated as "blank slate."
Discontinuity theorists believe that development involves primarily quantitative changes in human behavior
The universality-context specificity issue concerns whether we all follow similar or unique paths of development.
Freud believed that unconscious motivation played no role in human behavior.
The ego is the irrational, impulsive component of personality that serves only to satisfy one's instincts
When exhibiting repression, an individual expresses motives that are just the opposite of their real motives.
Regression is one example of a defense mechanism
Erikson suggested that humans develop over a series of psychosexual stages
A major weakness of psychoanalytic theories is that they do not adequately explain how development comes about.
According to Erikson, teenagers struggle with the crisis of generativity versus stagnation.
In Watson and Raynor's study with Little Albert, a white rat served as a conditioned response.
If effective, negative reinforcement leads to an increase in the frequency of a behavior
Negative punishment involves the removal of something pleasant that results in behavior decreasing in frequency
According to Bandura, the phrase "human agency" refers to any group that offers assistance to children or adults
Bandura was highly critical of the notion of reciprocal determinism
According to Piaget, children construct their own understanding of the world based on their experiences
According to Piaget, a child who is unable to use symbols to help solve problems mentally is in the preoperational stage of development.
An important focus of systems theory is in understanding the behavior of individuals in their environment.
Systems theorists argue that genes completely dictate human behavior.
Stage theorists tend to view parents as supporters of development, while learning theorists tend to view parents as supporters of behavior
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