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Earth Science Final - Part 1
Terms in this set (112)
The question you are trying to answer
Information obtained from observations
Orderly process used to solve a problem or answer a question
Proposed solution to a scientific problem
Variable that changes in an experiment
Variable that is changed in an experiment
Tests where all the variables are identical except the independent variable
Lines that connect points of equal elevation
Lines that show the difference in elevation between two contour lines
Contour lines that are close together form a ________ slope.
Contour lines that are far apart form a ______ slope.
Latitude is north or south of the
Longitude is east or west of the
The ration of actual distance to map distance
3 types of map scales
verbal, graphic, fractional
Marks that indicate depressions
Way of transferring the features of earth onto a flat surface
5 requirements to be considered a mineral
1) naturally occuring 2) inorganic 3) solid 4) specific chemical composition 5) definite crystalline structure
The way a mineral reflects light
Two types of luster
metallic and non-metallic
The type of luster that shines like a metal
The type of luster that shines like glass or can be dull, earthy or greasy
The color of mineral when broken
Another name for pyrite
Mineral's resistance to being scratched
Scale used to measure mineral's hardness
Softest mineral/moh's #
hardest mineral/moh's #
Diff between cleavage and fracture
Cleavage - split easy on flat planes
Fracture - jagged
Cause of cleavages and fractures
Mineral that fizzes with hydrochloric acid and has double refraction
Mineral that contains a useful substance that can be mined for profit
Rare, beautiful mineral that is cut and polished
# of protons in atom's nucleus
Combined # of protons & neutrons
Subtract atomic # from atomic mass and get...
atomic # and atomic mass of carbon
# of neutrons that carbon has
The number of _____ in its nucleus identifies an element.
atom that gains/loses electrons
attracting force between 2 ions of opposite charge
2 atoms with shared pairs of electrons
Most abundant elements and % in the crust of earth
oxygen - 47%
silicon - 28%
3 types of volcanoes
shield cone, cinder cone, composite cone
A shield volcano has a quet eruption with what material?
Shape of a shield volcano?
Composite volcano has explosive and quiet eruption with
lava and ash
shape of composite volcano
steep sides, symmetric cone
cindercone volcano explosively erupts with
shape of a cindercone volcano
Crater on top of a volcano
Crater Lake is a caldera filled with
Most earthquakes and volcanoes are found where?
along plate boundaries
Giant sea wave
cause of Tsunamis
diff between magma and lava
magma is underground, lava above
slowest seismic wave
fastest seismic wave
seismic wave with most damage
natural vibration of ground caused by plates moving or volcanoes
place where the earthquake begins
place directly above the start of the earthquake
Richter scale measures
Richter scale measures from numbers ___ to ___
1 to 10
Strong earthquakes have a richter scale measurement greater than
Instrument that detects seismic waves
As the distance from the epicenter of an eq increases, the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S ways on a seismograph will
P waves will travel through
S waves will travel through
The outer core of the earth's interior is
The area where no Pwaves pass is the
How does the shadow zone relate to the earth's interior?
The boundary between earth's crust and mantle
Four layers of the earth's interior
inner core, outer core, mantle and crust
Thickest layer of the earth's interior
thinnest layer of the earth's interior
Hottest layer of the earth's interior
Layer of earth's interior that is made of iron and nickle
Three types of rocks
igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary
5 textures of igneous rocks
glassy, fine-grained, coarse grained, very coarse grained and ?????
Coarse grain rocks form where
Fine grain rocks from where
Two textures of metamorphic rock
foliated and nonfoliated
Definition of foliated rock
layers and band
Definition of nonfoliated rock
Parent or origin rock is definied as
original rock in which something else is formed
Parent rock is sandstone, metamorphic rock is....
Parent rock is limestone, metamorphic rock is....
Parent rock is granite, metamorphic rock is....
Two origins of sedimentary rocks
clastic and non-clastic
Non-clastic rocks can be subdivided into
organic and chemical
Rocks made of once-living things are called
Examples of igneous rocks
scoria, obsidian, granite, basalt, and pumice
Examples of sedimentary rocks
sandstone, siltstone, conglomerate, coquina, and shale
Intrustive rocks are found where?
in the earth
Extrustive rocks are found where?
outside the earth
Sediumentary rock formed from the fragments of the skeletons and shells of once-living organisms
size of crystals of intrusive igneous rocks
size of crystals of extrusive igneous rocks
Plutons form where?
5 examples of plutons
half dome, stone mountain, mount rushmore, sierra nevada and ???
Most rocks on ocean floor are
most rocks on the continents are
which is denser- oceanic or continental crust
the continuos changing and remaking of rock is called
what processes form igneous rocks?
melting and cooling/crystalization
what processes form metamorphic rocks?
heat and pressure
what processes form sedimentary rocks?
weathering and erosion (cementation and compression)
What is the theory of continental drift?
Earth's continents were once joined
Who proposed the theory of continental drift?
The large land mass thought to orignally contain all continents
Pangea broke apart to form what 2 continents?
Laurasia and Gondawana lana
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