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Lab 11 Fetal Pig Dissection

Lab 11 Fetal Pig Dissection
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Domestic Pig
Scientific Name: Sus scrofa
Family: "Suidae"
Order: "artiodactyla" (even-toed mammals)
gestation period - 4 months
fetal pigs in lab are between 80-100 days old with well developed organ systems
External Anatomy of the Fetal Pig
Eyelid, Pinna, External Nares, Vibrissae, Digits, Mammary Papilla, Umbilical Cord, Genital Papilla, Urogenital Opening, Scrotum, and Anus.
Eyelid
Pigs are born with closed lids.
Pinna
External ear flap. Gathers sound and directs it into the external auditory canal.
External Nares
External openings of the nose used for breathing and sense of smell. Pigs have well-developed sense of smell and use smell as their primary sensory modality when foraging.
Vibrissae
Long, stiff hairs on the head, commonly called whiskers. Function is touch.
Digits
Toes and hooves.
Mammary Papilla
5 to 6 pairs of these strucures presents in both sexes, but develop into the mammary glands in only females.
Umbillical Cord
Contains 2 umbillical arteries and 1 unbillical vein. Serves as a connection between fetus and fetal placenta. Vessels within cord are responsible for nutrient, gas, ans waste exchange between fetus and mother.
Genital Papilla
Female's external genitalia.
Urogenital Opening
Terminal end of male urogenital tract.
Scrotum
Sac of skin beneath the tail containing the male's testes.
Anus
Terminal opening of digestive tract.
Glands of the Head and Neck - Fetal Pig
Parotid gland, mandibular gland, sublingual gland, thymus gland, and thyroid gland.
Parotid Gland
Large salivary gland which lies posteriorly and ventrally to the masseter muscle.
Mandibular Gland
Small salivary gland. Has oval shape. Lies partially ventral to parotid gland and between the the parotid and angle of the jaw. Also called the "submaxillary gland".
Sublingual Gland
Salivary gland is narrow and flat. Lies beneath skin, medial to lower jaw, and alongside tongue.
Thymus Gland
Large, elongated endocrine gland. Lies beneath skin on each side of, and over, trachea. Also extends down into thoracic cavity - lies on dorsal surface of heart. Hormones from thymus gland stimulate early development of immune system.
Thyroid Gland
Small endocrine gland-darkly colored, has oval shape. Lies between 2 lobes of thymus gland, posterior to larynx and ventral to trachea. Remove 2 sternohyoid muscles to find.
Anatomy of the Mouth - Fetal Pig
Hard palate, soft palate, tongue, papillae of the tongue, pharynx, epiglottis and glottis.
Hard Palate
Ridged surface which forms the anterior portion of the roof of the mouth.
Soft Palate
Smooth surface which forms posterior portion of roof of mouth.
Tongue
Lies on floor of mouth, between lower jaws. Location of taste buds and aids in food manipulation.
Papillae of the Tongue
Small projections on tongue. Particularily large on anterior margins and base of tongue. Aid in manipulation of food.
Pharynx
Region of throat where oral and nasal cavities join.
Epiglottis
Flap of skin which covers the glottis. Serves to separate esophagus from trachea and prevent food or liquid from entering trachea.
Glottis
Hole that is opening of trachea covered by epiglottis.
Anatomy of Respiratory System - Fetal Pig
Trachea, larynx, lungs, hilus, and diaphragm.
Trachea
Tube commonly called the "windpipe". Extends from larynx in throat to lungs. Lined with cartilage rings which function to keep trachea open.
Larynx
Commonly called "voice box". Connects to glottis anteriorly and trachea posteiorly. Contains vocal cords which can be viewed by making longitudnal mid-dorsal incision, and opening the cartilage.
Lungs
Large organs that function in gas exchange. Lie on lateral sides of heart.
Hilus
Part of lung. Commonly known as "lung root" and is only part of lung attached to the body. Pulmonary vein, artery, and primary bronchi enter lung here.
Diagphragm
Skeletal muscle located between lungs and liver. Primary muscle responsible for breathing.
Digestive System - Fetal Pig
Majority located in abdominal cavity.
Anatomy of Digestive System - Fetal Pig
Esophagus, stomach, lesser omentum, greater omentum, pyloric sphincter muscle, gall bladder, common bile duct, liver, spleen, pancreas, duodenum, small intestine, mesentery, cecum, large intestine, colon, and rectum.
Esophagus
Tube connecting pharynx to stomach. Goes from throat, through diagphragm, into stomach.
Stomach
Digestive organ just posterior to liver.
Lesser Omentum
Sheet of connective tissue which attaches to and anchors inside convex curve of stomach.
Greater Omentum
Sheet of connective tissue which attaches to and anchors outside concave curve of stomach.
Pyloric Spincter Muscle
"Doughnut-like" smooth muscle, found at posterior end of stomach. Separates stomach from the duodenum.
Gall Bladder
Sac containing green bile, located underneath and attached to middle lobe of liver.
Common Bile Duct
Duct which transports bile to duodenum.
Liver
Largest gland in body, located between stomach and diagphragm. Reddish-brown in color.
Spleen
Organ is long, flat, finger-like projection to right of stomach. Functions to store blood. Dark red to purplish in color.
Pancreas
Has right and left lobe. Produces digestive enzymes. Right lobe of pancreas is beside pyloric sphincter, at base of stomach.
Duodenum
Anterior portion of small intestine, just posterior to stomach.
Small Intestine
Portion of digestive system between the stomach and large intestine.
Mesentery
Sheet of connective tissue attached to intestines.
Cecum
Finger-like projection of large intestine at junction of large and small intestines.
Large Intestine
Intestines posterior to cecum. Larger in diameter than the small intestines.
Colon
Most posterior portion of large intestines. Desends along and ventral to vertebral column.
Rectum
Muscular region at base of descending colon just anterior to anus.
Circulatory System - Fetal Pig
Network of blood vessels throughout body.
Veins of Fetal Pigs
Cranial vena cava, brachiocephalic veins, internal jugular vein, external jugular veins, cephalic veins, subclavian veins, axillary veins, subscapular veins, caudal vena cava, hepatic portal vein, umbillical vein, renal veins, common iliac veins, internal iliac veins, external iliac veins, femoral veins, and deep femoral veins.
Cranial Vena Cava
Large vein carrying blood from head, neck and forelimbs to right atrium.
Brachiocephalic Veins
Carry blood from the cephalic, subclavian, and jugular veins to the cranial vena cava.
Internal Jugular Vein
1st set of vessels to emerge from cranial vena cava, medially. Carry blood from head to brachioencephalic veins. Located on either side of trachea.
External Jugular Veins
2nd set of vessels to emerge from cranial vena cava, medially. Carry blood from head to brachioencephalic veins.
Cephalic Veins
3rd vessels to emerge from cranial vena cava, medially. Carry blood from forelimb to brachioencephalic veins.
Subclavian Veins
4th set of vessels to emerge from cranial vena cava, medially. Carry blood from the subscapular veins and axillary veins to brachioencephalic veins.
Axillary Veins
Carry blood from forelimbs and join with subscapular veins to form subclavian vein.
Subscapular Veins
Carry blood from region of armpit and join with axillary vein to form subclavian vein.
Caudal Vena Cava
Large vein carrying blood from posterior portion of body to right atrium.
Hepatic Portal Vein
Large vein (may be yellow). Located between stomach and liver. Carries blood from stomach, spleen, pancreas, and intestines to liver.
Umbillical Vein
Carries blood containing oxygen and nutrients from placenta to fetus.
Renal Veins
Carry blood from kidneys to caudal vena cava.
Common Iliac Veins
Carry blood from external and interal iliac veins to caudal vena cava.
Internal Iliac Veins
Carry blood from pelvis to common iliac veins.
External Iliac Veins
Veins carry blood from femoral and deep femoral veins to common iliac veins.
Femoral Veins
Carry blood from the thigh and lower hind to external iliac veins.
Deep Femoral Veins
Carry blood from thigh to external iliac veins.
Arteries of Fetal Pig
Aortic Arch, Brachiocephalic Trunk, Left Subclavian Artery, Carotid Trunk, Common Carotid Arteries, External Carotid Artery, Internal Carotid Arteries, Right Subclavian Artery, Axillary Arteries, Brachial Artery, Aorta, Celiac Trunk, Cranial Mesenteric Artery, Renal Arteries, Caudal Mesenteric Artery, Umbillical Arteries, External Iliac Arteries, Internal Iliac Arteries, Femoral Arteries, Deep Femoral Ateries.
Aortic Arch
Artery that leaves left ventricle and gives rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery, and aorta.
Brachioencephalic Trunk
1st large artery arising from aortic arch. Carries oxygenated blood to neck, head, and right forelimb.
Left Subclavian Artery
2nd large artery arisig from aortic arch. Carries blood or left forelimb.
Carotid Trunk
1st vessel to arise from right brachiocephalic trunk, medially. Carries blood anteriorly towards neck and head.
Common Carotid Arteries
Carotid trunk splits into right and left common carotid arteries.
External Carotid Artery
Arteries are medial branches of common carotid arteries. Carry blood to area around masseter muscle and chin.
Internal Caroltid Arteries
Laternal branches of common carotid arteries. Carry blood to brain.
Right Subclavian Artery
2nd arteries to arise from right brachioencephalic trunk. Supplies blood to cervical vertebrae and right forelimb.
Axillary Arteries
Continuation of subclavian arteries. Carry blood to armpit, shoulder, and forelimb.
Brachial Artery
Arise from axillary arteries and carry blood into the forelimbs.
Aorta
Large vessel lying on mid-dorsal wall, length of abdominal cavity. Carries blood to entire posterior portion of body.
Celiac Trunk
1st artery to branch off aorta, posterior to diaphragm. Carries blood to stomach, pancreas, and spleen.
Cranial Mesenteric Artery
2nd artery to branch off aorta, posterior to diaphragm. Carries blood to most of small intestine.
Renal Arteries
2 large arteries branch off aorta and carry blood to kidneys.
Caudal Mesenteric Artery
Branches off ventral surface of aorta before it splits into umbillical arteries. Carries blood to large interstine and colon.
Umbillical Arteries
Terminal end of aorta splits into these 2 arteries. Enter umbillical cord and carry blood to placenta.
External Iliac Arteries
Branch off aorta immediately anterior to umbillical arteries. Carry blood to thighs and hind limbs.
Internal Iliac Arteries
Branch dorsally off aorta, immediately to umbilical arteries. Carry blood to pelvic region.
Femoral Arteries
1 of 2 branches of external iliac arteries. Carry blood to thigh and lower hind limb.
Deep Femoral Arteries
1of 2 branches of external arteries. Carry blood to thigh.
Anatomy of the Urinary System - Fetal Pig
Kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Kidney
Large, kidney-bean-shaped organs located on posterior dorsal wall of abdominal cavity. Lie beneath layer of connective tissue on either side of dorsal aorta. Produce urine.
Ureter
Paired tubes which join kidneys and urinary bladder. Carry urine to bladder.
Urinary Bladder
Large sac located between 2 umbilical arteries. Temporary storage for urine.
Urethra
Tube transports urine to outside when bladder is emptied. Short in females, just ventral to anus. Longer in males ends at urogenital opening. Also functions to conduct semen in males.
Male Reproductive System - Fetal Pig
Scrotum, Testes, Epididymis, Ductus Deferens (vas deferens), Inguinal Canal, Seimnal Vesicles, Prostate Gland, and Penis.
Scrotum
External pouch or sac located just ventrally to tail and anus. Contains testes.
Testes
Small, bean-shaped male reporductive organs contained in scrotum. Produce sperm and testosterone.
Epididymis
These are located superficially on posterior margin of testes. Long and coiled tubule which coils to use very little space. Functions in sperm storage and maturation.
Ductus Deferens (vas deferens)
Ducts which connect epididymis to urethra. Turn over the uterters to join urethra just anterior to where ureters enter the bladder. Function is to transfer sperm from epididymis to urethra during ejaculation.
Inguinal Canal
Passageways through abdominal wall in groin of males through which ductus deferens and blood vessels pass to testes.
Seminal Vesicles
Small glands located near junction of ductus deferens and urethra. Produce some of seminal fluid.
Prostate Gland
Small gland which surrounds junction of ductus deferens and urethra. Produces some seminal fluid. To find, dissect between seminal vessicles.
Bulbourethral glands
Pair of glands near base of penis in pelvic canal on either side of urethra. Produce some of the seminal fluid. Also called "Cowper's glands".
Penis
Male copulatory organ located ventrally on exterior abdomincal wall, just posterior or umbillical cord.
Female Reproductive System - Fetal Pig
Ovaries, Uterine Tubes (Fallopian Tubes), Uterine Horns, Uterine Body, Vagina, and Genital Papilla.
Ovaries
Female reproductive organs. Small, bean-shaped located in dorsal abdominal wall, just posterior to kidneys. Produce eggs and hormones like estrogen and progesterone.
Uterine Tubes (Fallopian Tubes)
Small ducts found between ovaries and uterine horns. Passageways through which eggs reach uterus. Fertilization occurs in uterine tubes.
Uterine Horns
Wider tubes located at end of uterine tubes and connected to uterine body. Embryos develop within these tubes.
Uterine Body
Single, wider tube formed by union of 2 uterine horns. Cervix is at posterior end.
Vagina
Mosts posterior tube of female reproductive tract. Is female copulatory organ and receives male penis during copulation.
Genital Papilla
Female's external genetalia located directly below the anus.