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MNS308 Quiz 2
Terms in this set (68)
Linking what two groups brings knowledge and power together?
Scientists and decision makers
What does the science process traditionally include?
Planning phase, data collection analysis, results dissemination
a hypothesis, and explanation for an observed phenomenon is defined and research methods are identified
Data Collection and Analysis
primary data are collected and analyzed by the research team
results are shared through peer-reviewed publications and presentations at academic conferences
Who are the best people to advise scientists regarding what information is needed?
Suggestions to convey needs to scientists
1. Posting priority information needs through science and conservation-oriented websites, newsletters, blogs, listserves and/or bulletin boards
2. Promoting needs through relationships with a few scientists who can also post as well as discuss informally with colleagues
3. Communicating needs through government agencies that issue permits to scientists
How to facilitate the partnership between scientists and decision makers
- Science advisory councils provide a systematic process for soliciting feedback while ackowledging the members' service
- Informal, on-on-one inquires facilitate timely advice
- Contracts or memoranda of understanding provide a formalized means of soliciting feedback, ad solidifying a relaitonship
Whats the best way for decision makers to tap into expertise as needed?
By developing long-term trusted relationships with a few experts on a breadth of issues (economics, climate change, ecology)
Planning research with scientists
- When do the scientists anticipate being able to share results, even preliminary findings?
- What materials will facilitate influencing the decision-making process?
- What level of certainty is needed?
What it is important to do with the agreed plans with the scientists?
Articulate it in writing
What can be a powerful way to gain support from donors?
Whats a way to help build the connection between scientists and decision-makers?
Decision-makers can become engaged in data collection and analysis
What is an underutilized mechanism for ensuring that science feeds back into decision-making?
To establish a set of research ethics to which scientists are expected to adhere
Examples of research ethics are
- discussing plans with national decision-makers and community leaders before doing research
- tailoring research to address management issues
- for foreign scientists, engaging at least one in-country scientists
- at the conclusion of the data collection phase, discussing impressions with community leaders and national decision makers
- within three months of completing the formal analysis and manuscript, returning to discuss the findings with community leaders and decision makers
- providing a one page summary of the key findings relevant to policy issues and recommendations with key graphs
Incentives to encourage scientists to collaborate with decision makers
- funding (like grants to conduct research of interest to decision-makers)
- resources (boat time, equipment or other facilities)
- staff time to serve as part of the data collection team
What is the best way to solicit the important messages to decision makers?
have a discussion with the scientists in the relevant field and the decision maker can begin by clarifying the issues at had or someone with a communication background could join the discussion who can combine the key messages with the relevant visuals into a succinct document
What is it important to do when articulating points with the decision maker?
1. clarify the issue and why it is in his or her interest to address the issue
2. clarify the issue and why it is in his or her interest to address the issue
3. highlight the action for them to take the relevant science to support the action
4. further explain the science as required
S2A tips for scientists
1. partner with decision makers
2. identify information needs
3. synthesize existing science
4. plan with decision makers
5. build capacity
6. identify key messages
7. produce supportive materials
8. discuss with decision makers
Decision Making Process
1. communicate information needs
2. partner with scientists
3. plan and fundraise together
4. engage in science
5. establish a research ethic
steps to establishing a 95% confidence interval
- review key management decisions or issues being considered by decision makers
- determine the ideal action for decision makers to take
- consider which of the messages are the most relevant
has the research as a core component, but also includes discussion of the relevance of the research to management objectives
Capacity building includes
- working with senior scientists to share expertise
- engaging and mentoring junior scientists and community members
- giving seminars and talks to explain methods and share expertise
- actively engaging in networks of colleagues
- contributing to local to global databases
- providing equipment and resources
Capacity building provides what additional benefits?
- engaging local expertise demonstrates respect
- locals are more knowledgable of the environment, previous research, cultural norms, and political realities, and therefore, they can help ensure a smooth research process
What is one of the most useful roles of a scientist?
To cull through existing research, pull out the relevant findings, and synthesize these key insights as they relate to the issue
For the relationship to work there must be respect and trust which can be enhanced by
- encourage two- way discussions to ensure mutual understanding to identify similar interests
- listen to the decision-makers to understand their concerns and infor needs and adapt the info
- explain points in simple, concise terms without sacrificing content
- start with basic concepts and then, based on interest and comprehension
Trust is also earned by
- demonstrating long term commitment to an area
- being available for informal or spontaneous discussions
- showing appreciation and understanding of the cultural and political context of decision
The decision making process varies depending on the context but the key components include
issue identification, assessment of impacts of alternative solutions, implementation of the chosen alternative
- the first step in the scientific method
- uses all of the human senses as well as the vast array of measurement techniques
- if an event or process cannot be observed, it cannot be explained by science
- observations lead to hypotheses
- can be educated guesses, carefully crafted explanations or questions
- a proposed explanation of some phenomenon
can and frequently must be changed as new evidence becomes available
After you make a hypothesis what do you do?
Test the hypothesis. and this implies that your hypothesis can be falsified or incorrect
What happens when the data does not support the hypothesis?
The hypothesis is rejected
What is a theory in science?
A broadly accepted explanation for an important phenomenon
What does the evidence about the Caribbean corals indicate?
1. there were no coral health problems when dust concentration was low
2. the first appearance of African dust was associated with coral disease and death
3. higher dust levels resulted in increased levels of disease and mortality
What is known as a correlation?
dust concentration and coral health
Is there a cause-effect relationship between coral health and African dust?
it has not been firmly established. the possibility also remains that dust is one of the contributing factor in the decline of reefs along with pollution, higher temperature or some other factor or factors
Persistent Organic Pollutants
According to the Rio Declaration from the 1992 United Nations Conference (precautionary principle)
in order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied, where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation
Precautionary principle also states that
there should be a reversal in the burden of proof whereby the onus should now be on the operator or polluter to prove that an action will not cause harm. "better safe than sorry"
Examples of products that have been brought into the marketplace without adequate investigation into any possible long-term effects on human health and the global environment are
POPs, lead, and mercury
What is important to do to develop critical thinking skills?
Learn to use a set of intellectual standards as an "inner voice" by which we constantly test and hone our reasoning but the standards must be set in an appropriate framework in order for true critical assessment to take place
the most important standard of critical thinking
1. what can we do about marine pollution
2. what can citizens, regulators and policy makers do to ensure the toxic emissions from industry, transportation and power generation do not cause irreversible ecological damage to the marine environment
how can we find out if a statement is true? A statement can be clear but not accurate
how many are there? a statement can be clear and accurate but not precise
how is the statement or evidence related to the issue we are discussing?
are we considering all lines of evidence that could provide us with some insight in addressing an issue? Is there another way to look at the question?
is a proposed solution realistic? How does it address the real complexities of the issue? this question is one of the more difficult ones to tackle. Instinct and moral values may interact.. "just dont do it" about teenage drug use
does one's conclusion clearly follow from the evidence? Why or why not? When a series of statements of thoughts are mutually reinforcing and when they exhibit the intellectual standards described previously
Point of view
what viewpoint does each contributor bring to the debate?
all problem-solving is based on evidence. the information must be laid out clearly. the evidence against our position must be evaluated and we must be open to new evidence
clear understanding of what it is because it is easy to wonder off the subject
all reasoning and problem-solving depends on assumptions, which are statements accepted as true without proof.
Critical thinking involves that we do the following:
- continually exercise our thinking skills
- can eliminate irrelevant topics and can explain why they are irrelevant
- come to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions
any cost of production not included in the price of the good.
the fallacy of composition
assuming that what is good for an individual is good for the group (sports events)
the fallacy of starting with the answer
including your conclusion in your premises or assumptions.
the fallacy of hasty generalization
the fallacy of false choice
stating an issue as simplistic "either-or" choice when there are other more logical possibilities
fallacy of an appeal to deference
accepting an argument because someone famous supports it
fallacy of ad hominem argument
attacking a person literally at the person
the fallacy of repetition
the basis of most advertisin g
the fallacy of appealing to tradition
coal built this country. eliminating coal use would threaten our society
the fallacy of appealing to pity
fishing appeals to American families, we have to support them
the fallacy of an appeal to popularity
75 percent of americans support this position, perhaps the poll asked the wrong question
the fallacy of confusing coincidence with causality
after the passage of the act, jobs in sawmills fell 70 percent therefore the act was bad for the economy
the fallacy of the rigid rule
hard working people are good for the economy and so immigrants are hard working and better for the economy
the fallacy of irrelevant conclusion
using unrelated evidence or premises to support a conclusion
Recommended textbook explanations
Book of Proof
Complex Analysis: A First Course with Applications
Dennis G. Zill, Patrick D. Shanahan
J. Douglas Faires, Richard L. Burden
Elementary Number Theory
Kenneth H. Rosen
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