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Book Title: Essential Elements For Effectiveness Book Edition: Fifth Edition

Ambiguous Figures

Images capable of being perceived in more than one fashion depending on one's frame of reference.

Brain Reserve

An increase in the connections between neurons believed to help the brain become more resistant to age-related or disease-related damages

Frames of Reference

Paradigms to enable us to organize and understand our world, our perceptions, our experiences.

Functional Fixedness

Becoming locked into thinking about using objects only in the most conventional or familiar ways.


A structure in the brain integral to the process of memory and new learning.


the capacity of the brain to change its internal structure by reorganizing neural pathways based on new experiences.


a specialized cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system


occurs when our brain interprets sensations and ascribes meaning to them


A particular way of seeing things. Also referred to as a perspective, schema, or Frame.

Paradigm Shift

A change in the overriding theoretical framework that governs a scientific discipline; a sudden or gradual change in how one perceives a situation.

Positive Psychology

The study of the healthy aspects of human function that make us effective our lives; the study of optimal human functioning.


The process of actively changing perspectives to create paradigm shifts


The process of receiving stimuli from our surroundings

Selective Attention

The focusing of consciousness on a partial aspect of all we are capable of experiencing.


An equivalent term for paradigm, a way of seeing things.

Selective Perception

The tendency to perceive that which we expect to be there.


The space between neurons where one neuron communicates with another

Predictive Coding

Process when your brain makes forecasts about what it is seeing and changes these predictions only when it makes an error

Distributed Processing

Recognizing something even if a cell is damaged


optimal human functioning


a positive state that includes striving for optimal health and life satisfaction

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