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41 terms

Oceanography ch. 13 (vocab)

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capillary wave
a tiny wave with a wavelength of less than 1.73 centimeters, whose restoring force is surface tension; the first type of wave to form when wind blows.
CDip program
Coastal Data Information Program monitored by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California and consisting of a wave buoy array located on the West coast of the United States that records wave height and direction.
constructive interference
the addition of wave energy as waves interact, producing larger waves
deep-water wave
a wave in water deeper than one-half its wavelength
destructive interference
the reduction of wave energy as waves interact, producing smaller waves
fetch
the uninterrupted distance over which wind blows without a significant change in direction, a factor in wind wave development
free wave
a progressive wave free of the forces that formed it
gravity wave
a wave with wavelength greater than 1.73 centimeters, whose restoring forces are gravity and momentum
interference
addition of subtraction of wave energy as waves interact
internal wave
progressive wave occurring at the boundary between liquids of different densities
orbit
in ocean waves, the circular pattern of water molecule movement at the air-sea interface. orbital motion contrasts with the side-to-side or back-and-forth motion of pure transverse or longitudinal waves
orbital waves
a progressive wave in which particles of the medium move in closed circles
pressure sensor
a device that is mounted on the sea floor, designed to weigh the water that passes over it, as a measure of wave height
progressive wave
a wave of moving energy in wich the wave form moves in one direction along the surface of the transmission medium
restoring force
the dominant force acting to return water to flatness after formation of a wave
rip current
a strong, fast current formed by the seaward return flow of surf. sometimes called, erroneously, rip tide
rogue wave
a single wave crest much higher than usual, caused by constructive interference
sea
a term used to describe simultaneous wind waves of many wavelengths, forming a chaotic ocean surface. sea is common in an area of wind wave origin
shallow-water wave
a wave in water shallower than one-twentieth its wavelength
standing wave
a wave in which water oscillates without causing progressive wave forward movement. there is no net transmission of energy in a standing wave
surf
a term used to define the confused mass of agitated water rushing shoreward during and after a wind wave breaks
swell
mature wind waves of one wavelength that form orderly undulations of the ocean surface
transitional wave
a wave moving through water deeper than one-twentieth but shallower than half its wavelength
wave
disturbance caused by the movement of energy through a medium
wave crest
highest part of a progressive wave above the average water level
wave diffraction
movement of waves around obstacles
wave frequency
the number of waves passing a fixed point per second
wave height
vertical distance between a wave trough and adjacent wave crests
wave period
the time in seconds that it takes for successive wave crests to pass a fixed point
wave reflection
the reflection of progressive waves by a vertical barrier. reflection occuurs with little loss of energy
wave refraction
slowing and bending of progressive waves in shallow water
wave size
the height and length of a wave
wave speed
how fast the energy of a progressive wave is moving forward. calculation differs for deep-water and shallow-water waves; see formulas at the beginning of this list, and in the text
wave steepness
height-to-wavelength ratio of a wave. theoretical maximum steepness of deep-water waves is 1:7
wave train
a group of waves of similar wavelength and period moving in the same direction across the ocean surface
wave trough
the valley between wave crests below the average water level in progressive waves
wavelength
the horizontal distance between two successive wave crests (or troughs) in a progressive wave
whitecaps/combers
a wind wave breaking at sea and releasing its energy at the crest
wind duration
the length of time the wind blows over the ocean surface, a factor in wind wave development
wind strength
average speed of the wind, a factor in wind wave development
wind wave
gravity wave formed by transfer of wind energy into water