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Terms in this set (55)
Inflammation surrounding the brain
2 types: Bacterial (more deadly) and Viral (flu like symptoms and most common)
symptoms: stiff neck, headache, high fever, nausea, vomiting, discomfort looking into bright lights
A brain injury where the brain hits against the skull and is stretched at the corpus collosum
A collection of blood
tear to veins ON brain.
within the brain
Three processes of communication
Central v. Peripheral Nervous System
CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord
PNS is composed of the cranial and spinal nerves that connect the CNS to the other parts of the body
Parts of PNS
Sensory receptors - Sensory division
Skeletal muscle (somatic nervous system) smooth muscle and cardiac muscle glands (autonomic nervous system) - Motor division
What neural system consists of
Neurons and Neuroglia
react to physical and chemical changes
A-miotic (do not divide)
high metabolic rate
plasma membrane (function in electrical signaling)
Once thought to fill spaces and surround or support neurons. Today, we know that they have many other functions including...
Sending and receiving messages
Parts of a Neuron
Three major section of the neuron
cell body, dendrites, axon
Three types of neuron
- eyes, ears, nose, tongue
more common in women
1/40 if relative
How do different types of neurons work together to send and receive signals?
Nerve impulses pass from neuron to neuron at the synapse
Presynaptic neuron and postsynaptic neuron
Brings the impulse to the synapse and, as a result, stimulates or inhibits a postsynaptic neuron (or a muscle or gland) A synaptic cleft, or gap, separates the two cells, which are connected functionally but not physically. The process by which the impulse in the presynaptic neuron signals the postsynaptic cell is called synaptic transmission
How does a cell membrane become polarized?
It is polarized so that the inside is negatively charged with respect to the outside. This is due to unequal distribution of negative and positive ions on either side of the membrane. Important in conduction of muscle and nerve impulses.
NA on outside, but going in.
K on inside, but going out
Events leading to conduction of nerve impulses
Threshold, depolarization, repolarization, refractory period, resting period
the point of depolarization at which the neuron fires, transmitting information to another neuron
difference of electrical potential that exists across the plasma membrane. Occurs during passage of action potential along the axon
Change in membrane potential that returns to a negative value just after depolarization of action potential
Just after transmission. Inside is negatively charged and outside is positively charged
Inhibitory or Exhibitory
Creates a sense of well-being. Controls sleep, memory. Increases heart rate and blood pressure
Addiction, depression, ADHD
Inhibitory or Exhibitor
Movement, memory, pleasurable reward, behavior, and cognition. Associated with focus and motivation. Levels can rise during drug injections
Addiction, ADHD, migrane, obesity, OCD, fatugue
Mood changes, appetite, slows or prevents chemical reactions, slows neurons down, helps recharge your body, regulate mood and deals with appetite.
eating disorder, OCD, insomnia, PMS, migrane, ADHD, fatigue
essential for processing memory and learning cognitive function and concentration. Controls memory and muscles reaction
Reduce the activity to which it binds helps the brain shut down. Important in feeling calm and regulating anxiety. Secondary neurotransmitter
insomnia, PMS, ADHD, anxiety, fatigue
Chemicals related to experiencing pleasure and pain. Create muscle stimulation. Increased levels causes anxiety
How do neurons convey information using both electrical and chemical stimulus?
The electrical signal travels down the axon to the axon terminals where it tells the vesicles to release the neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft which travel to the receptors of the receiving cell which releases the second messengers.
What factors impact our ability to react to a stimulus?
Things that directly influences the activity of a living organism or one of its parts such as exciting a sensory organ or evoking muscular contraction.
How and why does reaction time differ in reflex and voluntary activities?
Voluntary actions have impulses sent to the brain for evaluation. Since doing so takes longer, reflexes must be evaluated quickly in the spinal cord to cause a quicker reaction.
How do errors in communication impact homeostasis in the human body?
Negative feedback could result, bringing about responses that move the variable in the direction opposite to the direction of the change.
Membranes of the brain and spinal cord
Relationship between brain, brainstem, and spinal cord
The brain is the largest most complex part of the nervous system and oversees many aspects if physiology, such as sensation and perception, movement, and thinking.
The brainstem connects the brain and spinal and allows two-way communication between them.
The spinal cord provides two-way communication between the CNS and PNS
no blood vessels
tightly bond to surface of the brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine
it acts as a cushion or buffer
provides a buffer
The simplest of these pathways includes only a few neurons, constitutes a reflex arc. Reflex arcs carry out the simplest responses - reflex
Begins with a sensory receptor at the dendritic end of a sensory neuron. Nerve impulses on these sensory neurons enter the CNS and constitute a sensory or afferent limb of the reflex. CNS is processing center
Reflexes occur throughout the CNS. Those that involve the spinal cord are called spinal reflexes. Reflexes are automatic responses to change (stimuli) inside or outside the body. They help maintain homeostasis by controlling involuntary processes (heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure)
What three neurons are involved in reflexes
Sensory/afferent neuron, CNS, Motor/efferent neuron
Major regions of the brain
Bodily sensations (touch, temperature, and pain)
Reasoning, Movement, Problem solving, speech production, happiness
Long term memory, smell, hearing, language understanding
Balance, muscle coordination
Blood pressure regulation, breathing
Sleep, thirst and hunger
How would a breakdown in communication in the CNS impact the function of the human body
It would slow down reaction and reflexes throughout the body because there would be slower communication between the brain (to process information) and muscles (to do actions)
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