28 terms

Terrorism

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Terrorism
The use of calculated violence or threat of to inculcate fear, intimidate or coerce governments or societies in the ambitions of acquiring political, religious, ideological, and/or economic goals
Terrorist
one who advocates, creates, or employs the use of terrorism
Terrorist Profile
although developing a definitive profile is improbable, generally a terrorist is intelligent, well-educated, reared in middle-class and affluent families, military age, and determined to bring about a change to the status quo
Terrorist Group
organization of like-minded individuals that are committed to using terrorism as a means to acquire particular goals from a government or society; the groups may be national, transnational, international or government affiliated, which is further identified as non state supported (no backing or government support), state supported (direct government support) and state directed (direct support through training, material, and finances)
Crusader, Criminal, Crazies (three psychological categories)
he psychological categories of terrorists; not every terrorist is a fanatic or zealot determined to bring change through self sacrifice and martyrdom; some terrorists commit terrorism due to self gain rather than political or ideological gain; some are simply mentally ill and are sociopaths that have allowed themselves to be influenced; crusaders are exactly that - they have dedicated themselves to a political religious and ideological cause which allows for a deep psychological need to be soothed as many are suffering from mental disorders such as antisocial personalities, psychiatric disturbances and a need to belong by actively participating in bombings, assassinations, armed attacks, kidnappings, skyjacking/mar jacking, violent demonstrations, property destruction, and sabotage; criminals are agents that secure and acquire funding for their group, whether they are committed or not; the terrorist "fund raiser" - they carry out deception, diversion, theft, fraud, extortion, hijackings, corruption, burglary, assault, forgery, drug sales and bombings; crazies are the most dangerous of the profiles as they are unpredictable, impulsive, and the most deteriorated psychologically, no psychiatric care will rehabilitate their delusional state of perceiving themselves as agents of God or even God himself as they are disorientated and usually not organized; crazies carry out bombings, arson, skyjacking, hostage- taking multiple homicides, and sabotage
bombings
the most widely used tactic by terrorists
hijackings/skyjackings
this provides terrorists with hostages and draws wide media attention on
an international scale, the aircraft itself provides them with a tool for kamikaze attack
marjackings
this is the same as a skyjacking/hijacking with the exception that it involves watercraft of all sizes
kidnapping/hostage taking
a preferred tactic, the taking of prominent government personnel can pressure the government to meet demands; it also provides for much leverage and protection in the form of a hostage barricade
psychological terror
the inculcation of fear and panic by acts of terrorists and terrorist attacks both in the immediate and long term; this tactic alters human behavior in a society through the fear of the unknown created by terrorists
nuclear, biological, chemical attacks/weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
the use of nuclear weapons or radiological tools to bring about massive human loss and rendering useless electronic media; biological agents allow for mass casualties with minimal effort by the terrorists that will both be immediate and long term as well; chemical attacks provide the same affect as the two prior with minimal effort and loss by the terrorists, weapons of mass destruction is one or any of the precious to bring about the most death and destruction with minimal effort or loss by the attacker, many are skeptical of such an attack but the 1995 Tokyo subway poisoning with chemicals make this a real possibility on a grandeur scale
assassinations
historically, the use of such a tactic is for shock and awe and especially the psychological impact upon people for the effect of extreme vulnerability
hoaxes
this tactic provides much more value for creating fear than what is risked by such an undertaking; the media and populace provide the success that terrorists are seeking without much financial investment or compromising terrorists (i.e. bomb in a plane can close an international Airport with a simple call), false alarms can create a sense of false security and cause security personnel to become complacent and thus degrade readiness in addition to consuming resources that will truly be needed in a real attack
ecological terrorism
a tactic by which a society is attacked environmentally through it's habitat, food, and water to just name a few; creating a natural disaster takes much needed capital and human resources and thus allows for a bigger attack by such diversionary tactics
Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)
originally a part of Fatah, this was known as the Revolutionary Council (Fatah al-Majles al-Thawry); the group was named after Abu Nidal "father of the struggle" who was born Sabri Khalil al-Banna and regarded as the world's most dangerous terrorist until his death in Iraq in 2002; this group rejected any peaceful settlement with Israel and formally split from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1974, which was then under Yasser Arafat; Abu Nidal established himself as a freelance contractor and based his organization between Iraq, Syria, Libya, and Egypt; this organization recruited and provided amphetamines to terrorist to conduct violent acts
Fatah
the Revolutionary Council; the Palestinian National Liberation Movement; Black June; Black September (Munich Massacre - 1972); The Revolutionary Arab Brigades; The Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims; The Egyptian Revolution; Revolutionary Egypt;
Al-Asifa (The Storm); a name also used by Fatah; Al-Iqab (the Punishment); and The Arab Nationalist Youth Organization - the word is actually a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini which literally means "Palestinian National Liberation Movement" and it is the largest group of the Palestine Liberation Organization(PLO); "Fatah" means "conquest" or "opening" in the literal Arabic language; "fatah" is the word reversed from "Hataf" (HArakat al=TAhrir al-Watani al-Filastini), which literally means "sudden death" in Arabic and originates from 1958-1959 and took controlling leadership of the PLO in 1969 under Yasser Arafat
Hezbollah (Islamic Jihad)
the "party of God" is a Shi'a Islamic militia based in Lebanon and adheres to the strict ideology of Ayatollah Ruhallah Khomeini, who was the leader of the Islamic Revolution in Iran (U.S. Hostage Crisis -1979); this group took form on three stances - Western Imperialism, destruction of the state of Israel, and the building of an Islamic state (caliphate) todominate the world; financed by Iran and has been provided much aid and blessings from Syria - the group has grown from a militia to a dominating political party with radio and satellite programs, and programs for social development which wins it much support from the public in finances and recruits because of its hospitals and schools; reputed to be the first amongst terrorist groups to use Suicide Bombers against foreign soldiers in the Middle East (U.S. Embassy Beirut Bombing)
Palestine Liberation Front (PLF)
a militant Palestinian organization founded in 1959 and presently led by Abu Nidal al-Ashqar that has received strong support and assistance by Syria; fractured by internal strife and outright armed conflict with other PLO groups it has been stationed in different areas in the Middle East - Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia, and Iraq; the Abu Abbas group was responsible for the 1985 marjacking of the Achille Lauro which caused it's expulsion from Tunisia to Iraq, where it was provided safe haven, arms, and much intelligence and financial assistance in addition to partaking in military training authorized and encoura
Hamas
Harak al-Muquawama al-Islamiyya - the name is actually the acronym of the literal translation for "Islamic resistance Movement" and the acronym means "zeal" in Arabic; officially the leading body of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA); widely known for its direct attacks on unarmed civilians, military and security forces, its official charter from 1988 calls for the complete and utter destruction of the state of Israel - "There is no solution for the Palestinian question except through Jihad."; financed and supported by Shia from Iran, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and other Arab states; its rise to political power through the building and funding of schools, welfare assprograms, orphanages, and healthcare clinics have caused a refusal for western nations to provide foreign humanitarian aide, which allows the group much needed propaganda for continued support and recruits to continue armed conflict and conduct terrorist attacks; the charter of this group calls for 2027 to be the year that Israel will be destroyed and that it is the duty of every Muslim to ensure this feat
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
umbrella political organization claiming to represent the world's Palestinians—those Arabs, and their descendants, who lived in mandated Palestine before the creation there of the State of Israel in 1948. It was formed in 1964 to centralize the leadership of various Palestinian groups that previously had operated as clandestine resistance movements. It came into prominence only after the Six-Day War of June 1967, however, and engaged in a protracted guerrilla war against Israel during the 1960s, '70s, and '80s before entering into peace negotiations with that country in the 1990s.
Taliban
a strictly Sunni faction that established rule in Afghanistan from 1996 until their ousting by Multi-National Forces in 2001; a puritanical Islamic and Pashtun-nationalist movement, they are still engaged in guerilla war against NATO forces in Afghanistan; the word means "student" (Talib) in Arabic and gets much financial and spiritual support from religious seminaries or madrasahs from Pakistan and within Afghanistan; opium poppies then and now are the principal main stay of the economy for Afghanistan, which now produces 87% of the world's opium supply; the word Taliban, which is plural in Pashtu, means "Seeker"
Osama bin Laden
the world's most foremost terrorist and leader of Al-Qaeda "The Base"; this terrorist mastermind ahs taken responsibility for the bombings of U.S. Embassies in Africa, the attack on the USS Cole, and the attack on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001; born to a Yemeni father and Syrian mother, he was the 17th son of a billionaire, who had much influence and support of the Saudi Royal family; by 1998 he would call for the killing of Jews and Americans alongside their children; his health and whereabouts are all questions as he still remains unaccounted for by U.S. State officials
Al-Qaeda
"the Base" in the literal Arabic translation; the name is traced back to the training camps of the Afghan resistance against the Soviet invasion in 1979; it is the name that Osama bin Laden gave the multi-international alliance of militant Muslims; the ideology can be placed in the salafist strain of Sunni-Islam and wahabism, which calls for an end of Western influence in all Muslim countries, the eradication (genocide) of "infidels" (non-Muslims), the destruction and end of the state "the Base" in the literal Arabic translation; the name is traced back to the training camps of the Afghan resistance against the Soviet invasion in 1979; it is the name that Osama bin Laden gave the multi-international alliance of militant Muslims; the ideology can be placed in the salafist strain of Sunni-Islam and wahabism, which calls for an end of Western influence in all Muslim countries, the eradication (genocide) of "infidels" (non-Muslims), the destruction and end of the state
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC - Fuerzas Armadas de Revolucionarias de Colombia)
one of the largest, well-organized, and trained militaries numbering between 18,000- 20,000 according to some estimates that is lead by middle-and upper-class intellectuals; close relationship with narco-traffickers in world drug trade, money received for protection finances FARC in addition to kidnappings, extortion, and robberies; the objectives of FARC are to overthrown the Columbian government and replace it with a leftist and anti-American regime, to create a "anti- monopolistic" and "anti-imperialist" front and unify the left-wing parties and organizations into a unified political powerhouse that will force the U.S. and other "imperialist" interests out of Columbia
Red Brigade (Italy)
The Brigate Rosse (Italian) is a group believed to number less than 100, this terrorist group in based in Italy and strongly desires to create fear among NATO allies and has operated in Rome, Naples, Genoa, Milan, and Tuscany with members caught and arrested in France, which appears to be a safe-haven for members; in addition to opposing NATO in Italy it seeks to destroy "imperialistic multinational cooperation."
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
this is the most unique of terrorist organizations because unlike others who prey on the populace and seek to willfully destroy as much property as possible as well, the ELF's guidelines require that anyone acting on its behalf "take all necessary precautions against harming any animal - human or nonhuman" and destroy no more than what is necessary to protect the natural environment, which they believe they must protect for the use of animals and people who value the environment; the amount of losses in the United States alone has been in excess of $200 million dollars after 1,200 acts of vandalism and arson; the organization is active in the United States, Canada, Greece, and the United Kingdom; ecotage is what they call the sabotage of companies and groups who they believe to be enemies of the environment, animals, and people, the activities surrounding such acts are distinct in the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, where Rod Coronado is the "unofficial self-proclaimed" spokesperson for the EFL in North America after Craig Rosebraugh served in the same capacity from 1997-2001; the group originates from Brighton, England and the members of "Earth First!" and took the name from the Animal Liberation Front (AFL), who used similar tactics to protect animals and liberate them from companies using them for their by-products and animal testing and since 1996 virtually no actions have been claimed by the UK EFL unlike the North American group which has been deemed the most active terrorist group in the Western Hemisphere by the FBI; loosely structured with no true leadership, EFL is highly successful and clandestine despite such with the following "nonviolent" guidelines:
1. Inflictmaximumeconomiclossanddamagetoentitiesprofitingfromthedestructionand exploitation of our natural environment.
2. Createpublicawarenessandsupportfortheircausebyrevealingandmakingthepublicaware of the crimes and atrocities being committed against our Earth and all who inhabit it.
3. Takeallnecessaryprecautionstopreventharmorlosstolife.
Domestic Terrorism
1995 - The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the U.S. government in which the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was bombed in an office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The attack claimed 168 lives and left over 800 injured.
Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were both arrested for their roles in the bombing. Investigators determined that McVeigh and Nichols were sympathizers of an anti-government militia movement and that their motive was to avenge the government's handling of the Waco and Ruby Ridge incidents (the bombing occurred on the anniversary of the Waco incident). McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001. Nichols was sentenced to life in prison. A third conspirator, Michael Fortier, who testified against McVeigh and Nichols, was sentenced to twelve years in prison for failing to warn the U.S. government.
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
unofficial nationalist military force seeking independence for Ireland from great Britain