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test 1 Social Psychology
Terms in this set (97)
emphasis on how both an individual's personality and environmental characteristics influence behavior
study of how people perceive, remember, and interpret information about themselves and others
system of enduring meanings, beliefs, values, and practices shared by a large group of people
analysis designed to compare and contrast people of different groups
analysis designed to examine racial and ethnic groups within larger groups
field that uses the principles of human progress to understand human social behavior
field that examines the role of hereditary factors in actions
field that focuses on how psychology relates to fiscal decision making
field that studies the relationship between biological systems and behavior
subfield that examines close links between our minds and the actions of our bodies
extent to which a study measures the variables it was designed to measure
reasonable certainty that independent variables caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables
reasonable confidence that study results would be consistent for other people and in other situations
analysis designed to increase understanding of human behavior by testing hypotheses based on a theory
analysis designed to make applications to the world and contribute to solving social problems
specific procedures for manipulating or measuring a conceptual variable
bogus pipeline technique
procedure where research participants are falsely told a lie detector will verify their responses
degree to which different observers agree on their observations
method of selecting study participants so that everyone has an equal chance of participating
anlysis designed to measure the association between variables that the researcher does not manipulate
statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables
method where participants are not assigned to a condition according to their characteristics
experimental factor that experimenters manipulate
experimental factor that experimenters measure but do not manipulate
variable that characterizes preexisting differences among the participants in a study
factor other than the independent variable that varies between the conditions of an experiment
experimenter expectancy effect
effect produced when an researcher's hypotheses affect his or her behavior toward a participant
degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world
degree to which experimental procedures lead participants to behave naturally and spontaneously
method that provides false information to participants
accomplice of an experimenter who acts as if he or she is also a participant
technique to test hypotheses by using a set of statistical procedures to examine existing research
deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research
disclosure made to participants after research procedures are completed to explain the experiment's purpose
Who is credited with having published the first research article in social psychology?
Who introduced two important theories—one concerning how people try to learn about themselves by comparing themselves to other people, and one about how people's attitudes can be changed by their own behavior—that remain among the most influential theories in the field?
Whose research was inspired by the destructive obedience demonstrated by Nazi officers and ordinary citizens in World War II, but which also looked ahead to the civil disobedience that was beginning to challenge institutions in many parts of the world?
The "cold" perspective is to ____ as the "hot" perspective is to ____.
Mitchell is interested in how the "warrior" gene interacts with childhood experiences to influence the likelihood of extreme violence. Mitchell's research is most likely in the field of ____.
According to ____, to understand a social psychological issue such as jealousy, we should ask how tendencies and reactions underlying jealousy today may have developed from the natural-selection pressures our ancestors faced.
What is an interdisciplinary subfield that examines the close links between our minds and the positioning, experiences, and actions of our bodies?
contribute to the solution of real-world problems
Applied research seeks to ____.
Which term refers to the extent to which the manipulations in an experiment really manipulate the conceptual variables they were designed to manipulate?
____ research is most useful in discovering trends and tendencies.
____ research is designed to measure the association between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher.
What type of research design is necessary in order to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship?
Through ____, individuals are asked whether they wish to participate in the research project and must be told what they need to know in order to make a rational decision.
nonconscious form of self-enhancement
behavior designed to sabotage one's own performance in order to provide an excuse for failure
basking in reflected glory
act to increase self-esteem by associating with others who are successful
downward social comparisons
defensive tendency to compare ourselves with others who are worse off than we are
sum total of an individual?s beliefs about his or her own personal attributes
belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information
process of predicting how one would feel in response to future emotional events
idea that people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior
facial feedback hypothesis
idea that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion
tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for activities that have become associated with reward
social comparison theory
idea that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others
two-factory theory of emotion
idea that experience of emotion is based on physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of arousal
system of thought that accepts the coexistence of contradictory characteristics within a single person
affective component of the self, consisting of a person?s positive and negative self-evaluations
idea that people have a mechanism that enables us to detect acceptance or rejection
terror management theory
idea that humans cope with fear of death by constructing worldviews that help preserve self-esteem
self awareness theory
idea that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies
personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective
personality characteristic of individuals who focus on themselves as social objects
process by which people control their thoughts, feelings, or behavior to achieve a goal
strategy people use to shape what others think of them
tendency to change behavior in response to the self-presentation concerns of the situation
affective forecasting; impact bias
Research using ____ has found that people overestimate the strength and duration of their emotional reactions, a phenomenon called ____.
According to ____ theory, our self-esteem is defined by the match or mismatch between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves.
estimating the odds of an event occurring by how easily previous instances come to mind
tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions
finding that people are relatively insensitive to numerical base rates or probabilities
term for the processes by which people come to understand one another
process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects
behavior that reveals a person?s feelings through facial expressions, body language, and vocal cues
group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior
ascription to internal characteristics of an actor
ascription to factors external to an actor
idea that for something to cause behavior, it must be present when the behavior occurs
tendency to imagine alternative events or outcomes that might have occurred but did not
fundamental attribution error
tendency to judge others' behaviors by overestimating the role of personal factors
belied in a just world
belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, leading people to disparage victims
process of integrating information about a person to form a coherent impression
information integration theory
idea that impressions are based on perceiver dispositions and a weighted average of personal traits
tendency for frequently or recently used concepts to influence information interpretation
characteristic that exerts a powerful influence on overall impressions
tendency for information presented early to have more impact than information presented later
need for closure
desire to reduce cognitive uncertainty, which heightens the importance of first impressions
tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs
tendency to maintain beliefs even after they have been discredited
idea that a perceiver's expectation can actually lead to its own realization
What is the process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects, including other people?
use of emoticons and emojis in online communication
The importance of the face in social communication is demonstrated by the _____.
According to _____ theory, people try to determine from an action whether that act reflects an enduring personal trait of the actor.
In a study of moral judgments, participants made harsher judgments about the behavior of other people when they were given a bitter herbal mix rather than a sweet berry punch or water to drink during the experiment. This is consistent with the idea of _____ effects.
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